Saturday, 31 December 2016
6. THE WEAKNESS OF THE OTTOMAN RULE /TURKISH EMPIRE WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE LOSS OF TUNISIAN INDEPENDENCE IN 1881. DISCUSS
• Brief introduction about Ottoman and Tunisia
• Show how the weakness of the Ottoman rule led to Tunisian loss of independence.
• Show other factors
Turkey was the controller of Tunisia. The entrant at Constantinople has lose control over Tunisia, he used to appoint the deys who were assisted by the boys to govern Tunisia. However as Gear Nicholas I asserts it that Turkey was a sick man, she failed to control her overseas territories Tunisia inclusive and. This led to Tunisia’s loss of indenpence to France as shown below;
Points to consider.
1. Vastness, Turkey had a vast area to control, so ended up with a loose control over her territories like Tunisia, giving chance to the French.
2. Weak military that made her fail to put strong resistance against the French.
3. Turkish sultan over trusted the Deys yet they were not strong enough. For stance Muhammad Sadiq resorted to borrowing huge sums of money which made the French interfere into the affairs of Tunisia in the pretext of recovering their money.
4.Revolting of vassal states e.g. Greece revolted in 1821 Bulgaria and Serbia in 1804, this alerted other African countries like Tunisia to revolt yet they were not yet mature politically to resist Europeans later loosing independence.
5. Leaders of the Ottoman Empire could no longer hold together the diversity of nationalism.
The Ottoman rulers failed to overcome the oppression in its overseas territories. The Ottoman Empire gave independence to her provincial states.
6. The Ottoman rulers failed to provide efficient administration.
7. The French wanted to safeguard their positioning Algeria
The French wanted to check on the khumir raids. Khumir were Tunisian pastoralists who crossed into Algeria probably for pasture on 30-03-1881 the French entered Tunis and the Bey surrendered to them.
8. The grand imperial design emerging in France. the French wanted to build a large West African empire which would include Tunisia,
9. Financial crisis in Tunisia, Muhammad sadiq had failed to pay the loans in 1863, he borrowed 1.4million francs and the foreign debt increased to 4 Imillion francs by 1866.
10. Tunisian alliance with Algerian rebels, for the French to totally wipe out and clean fears of possible attacks from Tunisia.
11. Withdrawal of Italy as they were persuaded to go to Libya with an assurance of no French Intervention
12. Decline of the Ottoman Empire.
13. The treaty of Bardo supplemented by the convention of AI-Marsa on 8th June 18 83 prompted French occupation.
14. The Italian had signed treaties with Sadiq's brother to construct a railway link with Tunisian at port Golleta, this alarmed France who had to hurry and prevent Italians from gain foothold in Tunisia.
15. The British agreed to support France to take over Tunisia and in return the French were to take over Tunisian and in return the French were to support the British occupation of Cyprus
15. The Bey refused an ambitious plan by JJerdinand de Lesseps to flood part of Tunisia and create an island sea which would bring rainfall and improve agriculture. This refusal was seen as an insult only punishable by French takeover of Tunisia.
16. Weakness of Muhammad Bey who succeeded Ahmed Bey who made a string of mistakes for instance he sentenced San sfez to death and executed him on 241h-07-1875 for he had quarreled with a Moslem and abused Islam This annoyed the French only punishable by taking over Tunisia.
17. French authority also wanted to control the growth of Islamic fundamentalism which had its headquarters in Tunis.
18. Strategic location of Tunisia along the southern shores of Mediterranean Sea also encouraged France to add Tunisia to its territory of Algerian to monopolies trade opportunities on this region.
19. Need to protect the eastern boundary of Algeria colony from being colonized by a hostile rival.
20. Action of Ahmed Bey of moving closer to the French as his potential protectors and increase on expenditure on the army.
21. Activities of French and British cosuls Leon Roches and Richard hood respectively who forced Muhammed Bey [0 make certain reforms in [he famous pact of security known as Ahd-al-Aman issued on 10th sept 1857 which gave Europeans the right to acquire property ofTurusia.
22. Berlin withdrawal in favour of Libya.
23. Public opinion.
23. Need to check on the Mediterranean Sea pirates
24. Darwinism theory
25. Revival of slavery 1855 -1859 annoyed Europeans hence intervention
26. Need for prestige.
27. Military weakness of’Iumsia.
28. It was time for scramble for and partition of Africa.