Saturday, 31 December 2016


• Background of Egyptian and Khedive Ismail.
• Show the extent of Khedive's
• Contributions and then other factors besides Khedive's contributions
• Conclude logically
Back ground to the question.
1. Khedive was a leader of Egypt right from 1863-1879 and his continuations to the Egyptian loss of independence in 1882 are as follows.
2. He increased European influence in Egypt from 1870 by inviting more whites into Egypt:
3. The ambitious character, of khedive which compelled him to borrow a lot of money from the French and the British which he failed to pay thus leading to Egyptian loss of independence.
4. He dismissed colonel Urabi Pasha as minister of war which forced pasha stage a revolt which led to the British colonization of Egypt
5. He made a mistake of appointing a joint financial committee of the French and British which led to the loss of Egyptian financial independence and later political independence
6. Employment of European expatriates in the Egyptian civil service.
7. Khedive's modernization programs leading to bankruptcy, for example he increased the money given to Ottoman Empire sultan from £400, OOC to £750,000 as a bribe to the Ottoman leaders to allow him rule Egypt.
Note that by the time Ismail came to power in 1863, the debt was only 3 million pounds but only after 13 years it had increased to £ 91 million pound;
8. The sale of the Suez Canal shares to both Britain and France made them interfere in the internal affairs of Egypt.
9. He failed to put up a uniform and strong army since he recruited Europeans in the army as well.
10. He allowed secular courts which were foreign to the Egyptians thus leading to resistance against him.
11. His deposition from power and his replacement by his son Tawfiq who was a puppet
12. Khedive granted the British independence i.e. freedom of the press and ended up writing bad telling about Khedive.
13. Khedive's discrimination in jobs, he promoted white collar jobs hence: Egyptians remained un employed which made them to raise against rim
14. Extravagancy of khedive's officials which plugged Egypt into financial and hence unable to resist British colonialism.
Other factors besides Khedives contribution
1. Growth of Egyptian nationalism as manifested in the outbreak of the Urabist revolt was a threat to the British plans. Hence the British had to quick colonize Egypt
2. Appointment of tawfiq, a British puppet.
3. The weakening of lslam which was a unifying factor made the Egyptians more vulnerable to British imperialism.
4. It was an era of scramble for and partition of Africa and Egypt was not any peculiar.
5. Its strategic location' near the Mediterranean sea which attracted European powers
6. The defeat of France in the Franco Prussian war of 1870-1871 which made a weak contender hence giving Britain a free hand in the colonization of Egypt.
7. The mistakes of Muhammad All i.e. he allowed many whites in Egypt.
8. The Anglo French rivalry over control of Egypt. .
9The pressure put forward by the merchants and industrialists on the British parliament to colonize Egypt.
10. The debt Egyptian leaders had accumulated was used as a scapegoat by the whites to conquer Egypt.
11. The British prime minister's influence that supported the idea of conquering Egypt
12. The outbreak of the Urabist revolt of 1881 and its eventual failure was the immediate factor that led to the colonization of Egypt
13. In conclusion the mistakes of khedive Ismail more than anything else led to the Egyptian loss of independence.

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