Saturday, 31 December 2016

WHAT WERE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE URABI PASHA REVOLT OF 1881-1882?



Approach
• Brief background about Urabi pasha result.
• Causes and effects.
• Conclusion
Background
• The Anglo-French control of Egyptian economy from 1876 was met with strong resistance from the Egyptian elites and the army.
• The nationalists led by commander Urabi Pasha advocated for the removal of Tawfiq and his corrupt official and denounced the Anglo- French control of the Egyptian economy.
• Urabi pasha demanded Egypt for Egyptians, he also preached against
the privileges of the landlords and the family favorites of khedive, preached against the dominancy of the Christians in the affairs of Egypt.
•He condemned the heavy taxes imposed on the peasants and agitated for the expulsion of all foreigners and Turkish soldiers.
• In 1882, the nationals revolted and killed about 50 Europeans and even captured a British consul.
•In order for the British to control their interests in the Mediterranean Sea and Far East, they sent a fleet naval ship on 11th July 1882 in Alexandria commanded by Gamet Wolseley
•A military action was carried out, U rabi pasha and his rebels were defeated at the battle of 'Iel el Kabir this marked the final collapse of the Egyptian independence and Egypt was ruled by the British up to 1922.
Causes of Urabi pasha revolt
1. The imposition of the Anglo-French rule over Egypt was widely protested and resented by the country's nationalists. Here the Egyptians had lost their independence thus the nationals were struggling for the restoration and maintaince of the social, political and economic independence of Egypt.
2. The Anglo-French Commission had introduced fisca1 or financial policies that the Egyptians disliked, salaries for civil servants were drastically reduced, government spending slashed, Egyptian civil servants laid down & taxes increased. This taxation affected the peasants and other sections of people hated it.
3. The growing influence and population of Europeans in Egypt, by 1880, the population of the Europeans had reached almost 10,000 they were enjoying the privileges of Egypt, all government departments were put under the British and the French and a few more of the corrupt and inefficient Turks.
4. The army was another area of discontent, privileges of the army were unsparingly reduced and its size cut down. These directly affected Africans. in 1880 Tawfiq demobilized 2500 soldiers and were all Egyptians instead the European troops in Egypt were increased, high ranks in the army were for the Europeans and the Turks hence Urabi Pasha Revolt was inevitable
5. There was a problem of losing land to the Europeans. Although there were no reports of direct land grabbing, the favored rich foreigners purchased land from the local communities much of the fertile land especially along the Nile and coastal region was bought off Africans became squatter driven.

into the desert region.
6. The nationalists were agitating for a constitutional reform. This was manifested in the slogan "Egypt for Egyptian” they never wanted the cabinet and parliament that included the Turks. This involvement in Egyptian affairs by foreigners injured the nationalists because the natives were denied the making and implementing of decisions of their country. Hence the revolt was inevitable.
7. The Egyptian population was predominantly Islamic, yet they saw the Islamic faith being swallowed by Christianity e.g. the education was under Egyptian Christians who were regarded as infidels, they never followed the law and over taxed people promoted evil deeds, committed sexual immoralities, drunk, smoked and never promoted veiling which were all against the teachings of the Quran and Sharia.
8. The new education system was incompatible with the Egyptian Muslim way of life, they were detribalized and their cultures sidelined, English language and French became dominant in the country especially in government offices, Arabic language and local language that were recognized and widely spoken by the Egyptians were ignored
9. The role of AI Afghani a lecturer inAl-Azharuniversity in Cairo, he emphasized that Christians were the worst enemies of Muslims and indicated that failure by the Muslims to drive them out of Egypt was not only a sign of cowardness but also indication of weaknesses in one's faith. Hence influenced to the Urabi Pasha revolt of 1881 -1882.
10. Emergence of Urabi pasha a strong nationalists with military skills and capacity to organize the discontented Egyptian army. Urabi's forces had been mistreated by the Turkish officers; his services not appreciated. He thus disliked the presence of Europeans in Egypt
11. In 1880, the nationalists revolted in Alexandria and killed around 50 Europeans on spot; this made the Europeans to send a fleet on 11th July 1882 hence leading to the war.
12. The deposition of Khedive Ismail in 1879 caused wide resentment; ismail had practically expelled the foreign joint commission hence pleasing the nationalists. When he was deposed, all his modernization projects were suddenly stopped and yet they had been put in place to the pleasure of the Egyptians. Ismail was replaced by his infant son Tawfiq who becamea puppet of the Europeans.
13. The British removal of Urabi pasha as the war minister for Egypt. Definite he had to mobilize the Egyptians against the British for safety.
14. Ismail's failure to meet the debt obligation from European creditors. This led to foreign supervision of the finance of Egypt resulting into a joint control over Egypt by France and Britain, so Urabi wanted to liberate the finance, independence of Egypt.
15. Ismail's reign was characterized by bankruptcy and other malpractices like corruption thus Egyptians had to revolt to arrest a situation.
16.It was arrived at liberating Egypt from foreign control and from other Egyptian puppets.
Effect of Urabi Pasha Revolt.
1. Egyptian independence was completely lost. It was declared a British colony in 1882 after the defeat of the revolt at the battle of Tel-el sadiron 13th September-I 882.
2. The Angl0 French joint control over Egypt broke down because the British suppressed the revolt alone and declared Egypt their colony.
The French did not help the British in suppressing (he revo1t because the. had problems they were trying to settle in Tunisia.
3. The French lost all their investments they had put in Egypt especially in Suez Canal.
4. France and Britain became enemies because the British cheated the French. This resulted into plans for revenge and the French felt that they could d, that by occupying Sudan and harm the British in Egypt. This resulted in.Fashoda crisis of 1898.
5. Khedive Ismail, Tawfiq and other Egyptian leaders lost their influence. Tawfiq's power was further reduced that he had no authority in his country.
6. Ottoman Empire that considered Egypt to be part of its empire lost it to Britain.
7. The modernization schemes started by Khedive Ismail were stopped.
8. The revenue collected was repatriated to Britain. The Suez Canal only benefited the British not the Egyptian though it was built on their soils.
9. Many people died in the war. When Urabi pasha revolt was beginning. Europeans became the targets. When the British responded, they also l Egyptians. Some of Urabi pasha's soldiers
were killed as well
10. Some identified nationalists were imprisoned and harshly treated Urabi Pasha.
himself was captured on 15th Sept 1882 and exiled in Ceylon where he lived until 1910 and was finally returned.
11. It became the basis of future nationalism and agitation for the independence, militant nationalism of the 20· century used this back., ground and propelled the country to self governance in 1922 and full independence in 1954 after the Egyptian revolution led by GeneralAbdei Garnir Nassar, Nagwib.Anwal Sadat and Hosni Mubarak.
In conclusion therefore, Egypt was officially taken over until 1922 when Egypt was granted full independence away from British rule.

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