Saturday, 31 December 2016
. TO WHAT EXTENT DID THE URABI PASHA REVOLT MANIFEST EGYPTIAN NATIONALISM
• Brief background of the Urabi Pasha revolt.
•Basing on the causes, course and effects, show evidence of nationalism embedded in the revolt
• Then identify elements of divergence from nationalism perspective.
• Logically conclude :
Background to the question
•The Urabi Pasha revolt was a resistance mode of reaction by the people of Egypt led by colonel Urabi Pasha against the exploitative foreign rule
• It was staged between 1881-1882.
• The revolt was largely manifestation of Egyptian nationalism.
Basis of argument
1. It aimed at liberating Egyptians from foreign control and from those people who had became puppets to the Europeans
2.It aimed at doing away with khedive Ismail's reign characterized by bankruptcy something which was making their country fall prey to foreign rule.
3. The success of the army led to the formation of a national party which aimed at intellectual and moral rehabilitation of Egypt
4. It was also aimed at solving national issues rather than individual issues i.e. creating employment, increasing crop production etc
5. The fact that the revolt involved people ranging from peasants to elites makes it a nationalistic revolt
6. It was anticorruption, mal administration and injustices committed by foreigners on Egyptian people, in the army promotions were not accorded on merit but on wealth status and birth.
7. The peasants due to nationalistic feelings strongly joined the revolt because they were over taxed, denied proper education and wealth facilities.
8. All people hated foreign culture and imposition of colonial rule.
9. Though Islam was used, it should not blindfold someone that it was a religious revolt, Islam was simply used to unite people.
1O. The defeat of Egyptians was not result of lack of national support but military inferiority of the Egyptians compared to the military superiority of the British poor organization of the Egyptian and British determination to the Egypt at all costs.
11. The revolt centered in towns, the fact that those who were rebelling failed to mobilize people from rural areas indicates that it was not purely a nationalistic revolt because not all masses joined.
12. Urabi Pasha had personal motives, i.e. he had been removed from the p of minister of war for Egypt, and so he mobilized simply for his personal grievances.
13. Others joined the war due to the influence of the teaching and preaching of Jamal- Din-al- Afghan who advocated for the liberation of Moslem world from Europeans including Egypt.
14. The army as a unit/ sector had its own grievances, they resented lack c. pay and monopoly of promotion in the army by foreigners, and they also resented early" retirement and retrenchment.
15. Egyptian Muslim masses joined the revolt to simply purify Islam. They detested the infiltration of European Christians and their foreign cultures which had polluted the Muslim Arab culture.
In a nutshell, despite the few traits of individualistic interests especially in terms of leadership and organization, the Urabi Pasha revolt was a nationalitistic against the exploitative British foreign rule.