Saturday, 31 December 2016


1. Lugard Frederick was born in 1858 to missionary parents in fort St Georg.
2. He was educated in England and briefly trained at the royal military college.
3. At 21 years, he joined the British army and was posted to India; he one served in Afghanistan and Burma.
4. As a British administrator and soldier, he pioneered the system of indirect rule in colonial Africa.
5. He in 1880's left the army to fight slavery in east and central Africa, in h expeditions; he was almost killed in an attack on Arab slave traders in asaland (Malawi)
6. He in 1890 led an expedition to the Buganda kingdom and later he negotiated end to the civil war and in the end established a British protectorate
7. He was in 1892 charged of using excessive power to subdue the Bagar rulers but he denied those accusations.
8. He in I 894 worked for the royal Niger Company and he managed to sec., treaties from those people who lived along the Niger River in Nigeria.
9. This made him more prominent and the British government appointed leader of the WestAfiican frontier force all intended to block French invasion in West Africa.
10. In 1900, he was appointed high commissioner of northern Nigeria and 1904; he had conquered the Sokoto Caliphate and much of the surrounding areas.
11. He then resorted to pre-colonial rulers to serve as local administrators as he lacked finances to manage that large part under his control.
12. He used them to collect taxes, lead their fellow Africans and this system later came to be known as indirect rule.
13. He was later shifted to east African by the British government to take over IBEACO from William MacKinnon who had failed to succeed in the region. .
14. While in East Africa, he frustrating Germany advance to Buganda by stopping Charles Stokes who was believed to be heading to Buganda from Tanganyika
15. He signed a number of treaties with east African local chiefs e.g. he signed a treaty of protection with Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda in 1890.
16. He was active in the political-religious wars when he armed the Protestants against the Catholics and Moslems no wonder the Protestants defeated them on the Bunyoro boarder."
17. Lugard persuaded Sahm Bay to bring his soldiers join the force 0 f IBEACO; he used that to defeat his opponents.
18. He then built several ports in order to weaken Bunyoro with the help of Semei Kakungulu.
19. In 1919 retired from the colonial service though he remained active in colonial policy making.
20. He in 1922 published a book entitled "The dual mandate in British tropical Africa" which outlined his theories of colonial rule in Afiica.
21. Then served as a British representative on the League of Nations permanent mandates commission between 1923-1939.
22. He also served as chairman of the international institute of African languages and cultures.
23. All that made him receive the title of Baron in 1928.
24. He however died in 1945 and he is heavily remembered in the British books for having extended British imperialism in west and East African.

No comments:

Post a Comment