Saturday, 31 December 2016


• Brief introduction about Ottoman and Tunisia
• Show how the weakness of the Ottoman rule led to Tunisian loss of independence.
• Show other factors
• Conclude
Turkey was the controller of Tunisia. The entrant at Constantinople has lose control over Tunisia, he used to appoint the deys who were assisted by the boys to govern Tunisia. However as Gear Nicholas I asserts it that Turkey was a sick man, she failed to control her overseas territories Tunisia inclusive and. This led to Tunisia’s loss of indenpence to France as shown below;
Points to consider.
1. Vastness, Turkey had a vast area to control, so ended up with a loose control over her territories like Tunisia, giving chance to the French.
2. Weak military that made her fail to put strong resistance against the French.
3. Turkish sultan over trusted the Deys yet they were not strong enough. For stance Muhammad Sadiq resorted to borrowing huge sums of money which made the French interfere into the affairs of Tunisia in the pretext of recovering their money.
4.Revolting of vassal states e.g. Greece revolted in 1821 Bulgaria and Serbia in 1804, this alerted other African countries like Tunisia to revolt yet they were not yet mature politically to resist Europeans later loosing independence.
5. Leaders of the Ottoman Empire could no longer hold together the diversity of nationalism.
The Ottoman rulers failed to overcome the oppression in its overseas territories. The Ottoman Empire gave independence to her provincial states.
6. The Ottoman rulers failed to provide efficient administration.
Other factors
7. The French wanted to safeguard their positioning Algeria
The French wanted to check on the khumir raids. Khumir were Tunisian pastoralists who crossed into Algeria probably for pasture on 30-03-1881 the French entered Tunis and the Bey surrendered to them.
8. The grand imperial design emerging in France. the French wanted to build a large West African empire which would include Tunisia,
9. Financial crisis in Tunisia, Muhammad sadiq had failed to pay the loans in 1863, he borrowed 1.4million francs and the foreign debt increased to 4 Imillion francs by 1866.
10. Tunisian alliance with Algerian rebels, for the French to totally wipe out and clean fears of possible attacks from Tunisia.
11. Withdrawal of Italy as they were persuaded to go to Libya with an assurance of no French Intervention
12. Decline of the Ottoman Empire.
13. The treaty of Bardo supplemented by the convention of AI-Marsa on 8th June 18 83 prompted French occupation.
14. The Italian had signed treaties with Sadiq's brother to construct a railway link with Tunisian at port Golleta, this alarmed France who had to hurry and prevent Italians from gain foothold in Tunisia.
15. The British agreed to support France to take over Tunisia and in return the French were to take over Tunisian and in return the French were to support the British occupation of Cyprus
15. The Bey refused an ambitious plan by JJerdinand de Lesseps to flood part of Tunisia and create an island sea which would bring rainfall and improve agriculture. This refusal was seen as an insult only punishable by French takeover of Tunisia.
16. Weakness of Muhammad Bey who succeeded Ahmed Bey who made a string of mistakes for instance he sentenced San sfez to death and executed him on 241h-07-1875 for he had quarreled with a Moslem and abused Islam This annoyed the French only punishable by taking over Tunisia.
17. French authority also wanted to control the growth of Islamic fundamentalism which had its headquarters in Tunis.
18. Strategic location of Tunisia along the southern shores of Mediterranean Sea also encouraged France to add Tunisia to its territory of Algerian to monopolies trade opportunities on this region.
19. Need to protect the eastern boundary of Algeria colony from being colonized by a hostile rival.
20. Action of Ahmed Bey of moving closer to the French as his potential protectors and increase on expenditure on the army.
21. Activities of French and British cosuls Leon Roches and Richard hood respectively who forced Muhammed Bey [0 make certain reforms in [he famous pact of security known as Ahd-al-Aman issued on 10th sept 1857 which gave Europeans the right to acquire property ofTurusia.
22. Berlin withdrawal in favour of Libya.
23. Public opinion.
23. Need to check on the Mediterranean Sea pirates
24. Darwinism theory
25. Revival of slavery 1855 -1859 annoyed Europeans hence intervention
26. Need for prestige.
27. Military weakness of’Iumsia.
28. It was time for scramble for and partition of Africa.


NB; It is true that France took over Algeria in 1830, one then wonders why the taking over of Tunisia look them over (50)fifty years.
A number of factors explain this; these were both internal and external.
Points to consider
1. France had domestic problems at home, right from the time they took over Algeria in 1830, they had been faced by 1830 revolutions, Later they were faced by 1848 revolutions, even when Napoleon III came to power, and he engaged himself in so many wars. This failed France to concentrate on taking over Tunisia
2. Presence and influence of the Ottoman Empire the controller of Tunisia.
3. Good economic relationship with Tunisian leaders like Muhammad Sadiq, France saw no need to take over Tunisia.
4. Resistances in Algeria always kept them occupied in Algeria.foristance that of Abdel kadir, Muhammad Mukhran resistance.
5. The administrative policy they adopted proved to be a failure. That was assimilation policy, it was too expensive, and conditions for one to be assimilated were difficult, this coupled with the differences between Tunisian Arabs and the French made it a failure and affected their conquest of Tunisia.
6. Fear by the French to counteract with fellow European powers that is Britain and Spain.
7.Fear of Muslim brotherhood for stance the Sanusiyyab in Libya that was comprised of radical Muslims who were ready to fight against French in fidels.
8. Differences in religion, whereas Tunisians were majorly Muslims, the French were Catholics, such a difference scared off the French and ended up waiting until 1881. (Strong determination by Tunisians to protect Islam)
9. Need to first consolidate their position in Algeria.
10. The French felt that the area was too big for them to control it.
11. Poor infra structural development in Tunisia, this frustrated and intimidated the French to occupy the country.
12. The French were limited in number to occupy Algeria and at the same time to take over Tunisia.
13. The Tunisians especially those in the southern part were uncooperative and hostile.
14. The double stand nature of European powers scared off the French in fear of collaborators among the Tunisians.
15 Industrial revolution had not yet spread in France like it was in Britain, Belgium
16. Failure of France to give Tunisians material gains and control of Algeria as expected by the Tunisian government which had helped the French to occupy Algeria expecting to be favoured.



Note. Effects are both positive and negative
Points to consider.
1 The Beys were weakened and Algerian authority was taken over by the French.
2.. Western type of government system largely based on French style like chamber of deputies was introduced.
3. Replacement of Muslim judicial system with French justice of peace which left many laws imposed in favour of the French.
4. Algerians were over taxed yet even the method of collecting the taxes was brutal.
5. Algerians were forced to provide cheap labour yet ever the conditions work was hostile.
6. Led to spread of Christianity but did not endeavor to end or destroy Islam.
7. French education system was introduced leading to the development and growth of elites who helped in colorual administration and eventually agitated for Algerian independence.
8. Led to introduction of French language at the expense of local languages in Algeria.
9. Increased urbanization. e.g. Algiers developed into an international city
10. Abolition of slave trade which the Africans had used to accumulated lot wealth, this weakened their economic base.
II. Algerian economy was weakened due to the 36 million Francs imposed on Algeria as war indemnity and this was worsened by exploitation of Algerian resources.
12. Arms embargo weakened the military of the Algerians.
13. Moslem Algerians became squatters after the French alienation of their land.
1.4. Code de indignant tortured Muslims and restricted their movements
1.5. Assimilation policy was introduced which saw a numbers of Algerians assimilated which undermined African Algerian culture.
16. Algerians resistance movements like those of Abdel Qadir and Muhamadi Mikhail were staged and suppressed and many Algerians lost their lives and property in this resistances
17. New crops were introduced like citrus fruit and barley. This improved on peoples ‘standard of living


•    Brief background about French colonial rule in Algeria and the establishment of assimilation
•    Explain reasons which led to the failure of the policy in Algeria.
•    Logically conclude.
Background   to the question:
•   Algeria became the first country in the Maghreb to be colonized.
•  It was colonized   by France in 1830.
•   Like in the rest of the colonies, the French employed the assimilation policy of administration in Algeria.
•However   the policy turned out to be futile and it accumulated   a lot of resistance.
Reasons   of the resistance.
1. The Muslim background of the people of Algeria led to the resistance of assimilation because it was associated to with Christianity.
2.    The policy was resisted by the French settlers themselves who feared that the policy would promote rivalry and competition in trade and commerce with Africans.
3. The high costs that were required to implement the policy. These resources were not readily available.
4.    The policy was opposed by French scholars (liberals) who argued that it was wrong to assimilate people of different race and culture.
8.    The strict conditions required for assimilation i.e. one bad to be fluent in French, rich and catholic.  Most Algerians could not meet those standards.
6. The policy threatened to erode African and Muslim cultural values like polygamy to which most Algerians were already attached
7.   The effect of numerous  resistances  against  the French  rule e.g. the Abdel Kader  resistance  of  1832-1847 and the Muhammad  Mukraru  resistance  of 1871.
8. Weaknesses of the successive French governments   like that of Charles X up to 1830 and that of Louis Philippe 1830-1848
9.There  existed  much  differences   between  the French  culture  and the people of Algeria in terms of religion,  way of dressing,  feeding  etc
10. The limited number of French settlers in Algeria.e.g.  up to 1839 there were 25000 French settlers.
11.  The earlier attachment of Algeria to the Ottoman leadership of Turkish Muslims.
12.  Education as a tool of assimilation did not materialize because it was dominated by Christian missionaries thus discouraging many Algerian Muslims.
13.   The conflicts between the settlers from other countries like those from Spain. ltaly and the French settlers
14.  The French Government   also led to the failure of assimilation.  They were divided m approach of Algerian colonization i.e. some officials were pro and others against the colonization.
15.   Unlike  for the case of Senegal  the French  lacked adequate  knowledge  about Algeria  for example  the colonial  governor  Jerome  sat in Paris and not in Algeria,  thus could not effectively  administer  the colony.
16.  Assimilation  was opposed  by some French  imperialists  because  it tended  to sabotage  colonial  exploitation  i.e. there would be no body to offer labour on plantations  and other public works since even the natives  would "French  men" Cassimidies.


• Brief background of French conquest of Algeria.
• Show how it influenced events III the Maghreb region
• Conclude.
French conquest of Algeria in 1830 opened doors of North Africa to European colonialism; the whole of Magbrcb region after 1830 was affected in the following ways
Points to consider.
I. French conquest over Algeria led to colonization of Tunisia in 1881. France
did not want the eastern boundary of Algeria to fall to a rival power Therefore in 1881; a French army moved from Algiers and occupied Tunis after signing the treaty of Bardo on 12th May 1881.
2. France disliked any country to take over her western neighbour MoroccoSoin 1912, morocco was taken over by France.
3.French conquest over Algeria led to the revival of the Ottoman rule in the Maghreb region, for instance the Turkish intervened directly in Libya to overthrow the Karamanli dynasty which was ruling Libya.
4. Failure of Italy to take over Tunisia made her compensate herself by taking over Libya.
5. Desire for a big market by France made her take over Morocco and Tunisia
6. Following French conquest of Algeria and the resultant economic benefit. other European powers thought of competing with France by colonizing i.e. Algerian north eastern neighbour Tunisia. In fact Germany deliberately encouraged both Italy and France to occupy the country. Thus France rivaling with Italy over Tunisia.
7. Led to increased conflicts between morocco and Algeria rebel. Morocco had given asylum to Abdel Kadel an Algerian rebel. This led to 1844 battle of river isly in which the Moroccan army was severely beaten by the French troops.
8. French occupation of Algeria further stimulated the activities of the Khrumir tribes’ men, they always launched attacks on the French in Algeria, and they looted their property and even killed some in the process. This situation forced the French to invade Tunisia, the tribesmen were defeated forcing the Bey, Tunisia to sign the treaty of Bardo on the 12th of may 1881 which led to the subsequent French occupation of Tunisia.
9. French presence in Algeria led to the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in a Maghreb countries e.g. the Sanusiyyah brotherhood founded by Muhamadi Asanusiin 1837.
10. Led to army confrontation between Germany and Britain against France leading to the Moroccan crisis of 1905 in which Germany bombarded Tangr, which finally led to Algeria conference which was held in Spain in 1906 to determine the position of Morocco.
11. French presence led to the growing friendship between Morocco and Britain which led to the signing of the commercial treaty between Sultan Abdul Kehman and Britain in 1956 which allowed Britain to monopolise the purchase of wool
12. French conquest made the Turkish empire to weaken further which left Maghreb countries without protection of the Turkish empire.
13. Led to loss of lives and property in the whole region.
14. The French occupation of Algeria intensified colonial rivalry over the Magreb which led to international conferences like the Berlin conference of 1878 which encouraged the French to take over Tunisia as were the Italians for Libya.


• Brief background of French conquest of Algeria
• How they consolidated themselves after conquering Algeria
• Conclude.
After suppressing the Muhamed Mukram revolt in 1871, the French introduced policies to consolidate their position.
Points to consider
1.They at first used indirect rule i.e. 1850-1870, members of thefijaniyyah brotherhood who had supported the French against Abdel Qadir and his Quadnyyah movement were given posts though it was a mock one as real authority was held by French administration
2After the fall of Napoleon III, they adopted assimilation policy under the first governor general Gueydonia; however this policy did not stand the test of time.
3 They later adopted the policy of paternalism (association)
4They encouraged more settlers in Algeria to match their population with that of the native Algerians and by 1839, there were 25,000 settlers but by 1880, there were 350,000 settlers
5 Forced taxation. Special taxes known as imports Arabs were so, high considering the living standards of Algeria of the time thus kept Algerians in abject poverty and brutal methods of collecting taxes
6 Land alienation, by 1914, Algerians had lost nine million hectares of fertile and to European settlers.Inkabylia region. Many pastoralists were deprived of the grazing lands.
7 Banned importation of guns from Tunisia and Morocco.
8.Use of violence scotched earth policy was adopted; they often took fierce measures to break the nationalistic spirit E.g. general Bugend was quoted to have said; 'We have burnt a great deal and destroyed a Great deal.
9 Introduction of indignant law or' code de indignant'. It stated that any Algerian opposing the French rule could be arrested without trial. This intimidated the Algerians.
10 Established define councils, in areas where settlers settled defence committees were formed which comprised of people who were trained in military matters and could gather intelligence information.
11. Conquest of neighboring countries. In the north east of Algeria, they conquered Tunisia and in the west they conquered morocco. This could end boarder insurgencies for both countries. The two countries could no longer give asylum to Algerian rebels.
12. Introduction of travel documents which were given to Algerians who were traveling from one district to another. This travel ban was meant to limit the co-ordination of any rebellions.
13. Imposed a heavy war indemnity on Algeria of over 36million France after defending Muhammad Mukhrani in the Kabylie rebellion of 1871. Algeria were weakened and scared by this repressive policy.
14. Denial of citizenship, they granted themselves citizenship or nationality to all European children born in Algeria and denied this right to the Algerians This led to a racist arrogant attitude towards the natives which greatly demoralized the Algerians.
15. They also used decrees to consolidate their position in 1870 four decrees were passed annexing Algeria directly to France, these decrees gave all the lands of rebel Itous tribes to the settlers and abolished the Muslim hierarchy known as the beareux arabe. Generally, the decrees stripped Muslim leaders of their political power which Napoleon 11 had given them.
16. The activities of the first arch bishop of Nigeria known as Cardinal Lavigerie he always looked at the Muslim culture as barbaric, he assimilated many young Muslims whom he had put in charitable homes, such then helped in the consolidation of the French rule in Algeria.
17. Imprisonment of Algerian rebels e.g. they confined Abdel Qadir in France for five years and this threatened the would be rebels.
18. Introduced Christianity. Cardinal Lavigerie who was made the first. Archbishop of Algeria in 1867 overtly campaigned for the establishment of the catholic state. This affected Islam which was the unifying factor for Algerians.
19. Construction of infrastructure e.g. port Algiers, they were opened up to link the coast with productive interior for effective exploitation.
20. Replacement of Moslem judicial system with that of the French justice. Moslem Qadhis replaced by French magistrates, courts were reduced in number, Moslems therefore became subjects of the settlers. Judicial procedures were characterized by manipulation, corruption and fraud all which didn’t favour the Arabs.
21 .Replaced traditional Moslem leaders with new salaried officers who wereloyal to the French.
22. Introduction of western education which created a class of elites who at the end supported French rule In Algerian. Subjects like history, literature and political science were not taught
23 The French banned the importation of weapons from Morocco and Tunisiameant to prevent Algeria rebels from obtaining guns which they would destabilize the French.
24 Created a settler army which often/always suppressed Algerian resistances
25 The role of the Peidnoir can’t be underrated in consolidation of the French rule over Algeria, Piednoir were a new generation of the Frenchmen in Algeria born of Algerians as well as French settlers. They opposed any attempts aimed at promoting the welfare of the Algerian Muslims. Their activities greatly weakened the Algerian Muslims to the advantage of the French administrators.


• Background of Egyptian and Khedive Ismail.
• Show the extent of Khedive's
• Contributions and then other factors besides Khedive's contributions
• Conclude logically
Back ground to the question.
1. Khedive was a leader of Egypt right from 1863-1879 and his continuations to the Egyptian loss of independence in 1882 are as follows.
2. He increased European influence in Egypt from 1870 by inviting more whites into Egypt:
3. The ambitious character, of khedive which compelled him to borrow a lot of money from the French and the British which he failed to pay thus leading to Egyptian loss of independence.
4. He dismissed colonel Urabi Pasha as minister of war which forced pasha stage a revolt which led to the British colonization of Egypt
5. He made a mistake of appointing a joint financial committee of the French and British which led to the loss of Egyptian financial independence and later political independence
6. Employment of European expatriates in the Egyptian civil service.
7. Khedive's modernization programs leading to bankruptcy, for example he increased the money given to Ottoman Empire sultan from £400, OOC to £750,000 as a bribe to the Ottoman leaders to allow him rule Egypt.
Note that by the time Ismail came to power in 1863, the debt was only 3 million pounds but only after 13 years it had increased to £ 91 million pound;
8. The sale of the Suez Canal shares to both Britain and France made them interfere in the internal affairs of Egypt.
9. He failed to put up a uniform and strong army since he recruited Europeans in the army as well.
10. He allowed secular courts which were foreign to the Egyptians thus leading to resistance against him.
11. His deposition from power and his replacement by his son Tawfiq who was a puppet
12. Khedive granted the British independence i.e. freedom of the press and ended up writing bad telling about Khedive.
13. Khedive's discrimination in jobs, he promoted white collar jobs hence: Egyptians remained un employed which made them to raise against rim
14. Extravagancy of khedive's officials which plugged Egypt into financial and hence unable to resist British colonialism.
Other factors besides Khedives contribution
1. Growth of Egyptian nationalism as manifested in the outbreak of the Urabist revolt was a threat to the British plans. Hence the British had to quick colonize Egypt
2. Appointment of tawfiq, a British puppet.
3. The weakening of lslam which was a unifying factor made the Egyptians more vulnerable to British imperialism.
4. It was an era of scramble for and partition of Africa and Egypt was not any peculiar.
5. Its strategic location' near the Mediterranean sea which attracted European powers
6. The defeat of France in the Franco Prussian war of 1870-1871 which made a weak contender hence giving Britain a free hand in the colonization of Egypt.
7. The mistakes of Muhammad All i.e. he allowed many whites in Egypt.
8. The Anglo French rivalry over control of Egypt. .
9The pressure put forward by the merchants and industrialists on the British parliament to colonize Egypt.
10. The debt Egyptian leaders had accumulated was used as a scapegoat by the whites to conquer Egypt.
11. The British prime minister's influence that supported the idea of conquering Egypt
12. The outbreak of the Urabist revolt of 1881 and its eventual failure was the immediate factor that led to the colonization of Egypt
13. In conclusion the mistakes of khedive Ismail more than anything else led to the Egyptian loss of independence.


• Brief background about Urabi pasha result.
• Causes and effects.
• Conclusion
• The Anglo-French control of Egyptian economy from 1876 was met with strong resistance from the Egyptian elites and the army.
• The nationalists led by commander Urabi Pasha advocated for the removal of Tawfiq and his corrupt official and denounced the Anglo- French control of the Egyptian economy.
• Urabi pasha demanded Egypt for Egyptians, he also preached against
the privileges of the landlords and the family favorites of khedive, preached against the dominancy of the Christians in the affairs of Egypt.
•He condemned the heavy taxes imposed on the peasants and agitated for the expulsion of all foreigners and Turkish soldiers.
• In 1882, the nationals revolted and killed about 50 Europeans and even captured a British consul.
•In order for the British to control their interests in the Mediterranean Sea and Far East, they sent a fleet naval ship on 11th July 1882 in Alexandria commanded by Gamet Wolseley
•A military action was carried out, U rabi pasha and his rebels were defeated at the battle of 'Iel el Kabir this marked the final collapse of the Egyptian independence and Egypt was ruled by the British up to 1922.
Causes of Urabi pasha revolt
1. The imposition of the Anglo-French rule over Egypt was widely protested and resented by the country's nationalists. Here the Egyptians had lost their independence thus the nationals were struggling for the restoration and maintaince of the social, political and economic independence of Egypt.
2. The Anglo-French Commission had introduced fisca1 or financial policies that the Egyptians disliked, salaries for civil servants were drastically reduced, government spending slashed, Egyptian civil servants laid down & taxes increased. This taxation affected the peasants and other sections of people hated it.
3. The growing influence and population of Europeans in Egypt, by 1880, the population of the Europeans had reached almost 10,000 they were enjoying the privileges of Egypt, all government departments were put under the British and the French and a few more of the corrupt and inefficient Turks.
4. The army was another area of discontent, privileges of the army were unsparingly reduced and its size cut down. These directly affected Africans. in 1880 Tawfiq demobilized 2500 soldiers and were all Egyptians instead the European troops in Egypt were increased, high ranks in the army were for the Europeans and the Turks hence Urabi Pasha Revolt was inevitable
5. There was a problem of losing land to the Europeans. Although there were no reports of direct land grabbing, the favored rich foreigners purchased land from the local communities much of the fertile land especially along the Nile and coastal region was bought off Africans became squatter driven.

into the desert region.
6. The nationalists were agitating for a constitutional reform. This was manifested in the slogan "Egypt for Egyptian” they never wanted the cabinet and parliament that included the Turks. This involvement in Egyptian affairs by foreigners injured the nationalists because the natives were denied the making and implementing of decisions of their country. Hence the revolt was inevitable.
7. The Egyptian population was predominantly Islamic, yet they saw the Islamic faith being swallowed by Christianity e.g. the education was under Egyptian Christians who were regarded as infidels, they never followed the law and over taxed people promoted evil deeds, committed sexual immoralities, drunk, smoked and never promoted veiling which were all against the teachings of the Quran and Sharia.
8. The new education system was incompatible with the Egyptian Muslim way of life, they were detribalized and their cultures sidelined, English language and French became dominant in the country especially in government offices, Arabic language and local language that were recognized and widely spoken by the Egyptians were ignored
9. The role of AI Afghani a lecturer inAl-Azharuniversity in Cairo, he emphasized that Christians were the worst enemies of Muslims and indicated that failure by the Muslims to drive them out of Egypt was not only a sign of cowardness but also indication of weaknesses in one's faith. Hence influenced to the Urabi Pasha revolt of 1881 -1882.
10. Emergence of Urabi pasha a strong nationalists with military skills and capacity to organize the discontented Egyptian army. Urabi's forces had been mistreated by the Turkish officers; his services not appreciated. He thus disliked the presence of Europeans in Egypt
11. In 1880, the nationalists revolted in Alexandria and killed around 50 Europeans on spot; this made the Europeans to send a fleet on 11th July 1882 hence leading to the war.
12. The deposition of Khedive Ismail in 1879 caused wide resentment; ismail had practically expelled the foreign joint commission hence pleasing the nationalists. When he was deposed, all his modernization projects were suddenly stopped and yet they had been put in place to the pleasure of the Egyptians. Ismail was replaced by his infant son Tawfiq who becamea puppet of the Europeans.
13. The British removal of Urabi pasha as the war minister for Egypt. Definite he had to mobilize the Egyptians against the British for safety.
14. Ismail's failure to meet the debt obligation from European creditors. This led to foreign supervision of the finance of Egypt resulting into a joint control over Egypt by France and Britain, so Urabi wanted to liberate the finance, independence of Egypt.
15. Ismail's reign was characterized by bankruptcy and other malpractices like corruption thus Egyptians had to revolt to arrest a situation.
16.It was arrived at liberating Egypt from foreign control and from other Egyptian puppets.
Effect of Urabi Pasha Revolt.
1. Egyptian independence was completely lost. It was declared a British colony in 1882 after the defeat of the revolt at the battle of Tel-el sadiron 13th September-I 882.
2. The Angl0 French joint control over Egypt broke down because the British suppressed the revolt alone and declared Egypt their colony.
The French did not help the British in suppressing (he revo1t because the. had problems they were trying to settle in Tunisia.
3. The French lost all their investments they had put in Egypt especially in Suez Canal.
4. France and Britain became enemies because the British cheated the French. This resulted into plans for revenge and the French felt that they could d, that by occupying Sudan and harm the British in Egypt. This resulted in.Fashoda crisis of 1898.
5. Khedive Ismail, Tawfiq and other Egyptian leaders lost their influence. Tawfiq's power was further reduced that he had no authority in his country.
6. Ottoman Empire that considered Egypt to be part of its empire lost it to Britain.
7. The modernization schemes started by Khedive Ismail were stopped.
8. The revenue collected was repatriated to Britain. The Suez Canal only benefited the British not the Egyptian though it was built on their soils.
9. Many people died in the war. When Urabi pasha revolt was beginning. Europeans became the targets. When the British responded, they also l Egyptians. Some of Urabi pasha's soldiers
were killed as well
10. Some identified nationalists were imprisoned and harshly treated Urabi Pasha.
himself was captured on 15th Sept 1882 and exiled in Ceylon where he lived until 1910 and was finally returned.
11. It became the basis of future nationalism and agitation for the independence, militant nationalism of the 20· century used this back., ground and propelled the country to self governance in 1922 and full independence in 1954 after the Egyptian revolution led by GeneralAbdei Garnir Nassar, Nagwib.Anwal Sadat and Hosni Mubarak.
In conclusion therefore, Egypt was officially taken over until 1922 when Egypt was granted full independence away from British rule.



• Brief background of the Urabi Pasha revolt.
•Basing on the causes, course and effects, show evidence of nationalism embedded in the revolt
• Then identify elements of divergence from nationalism perspective.
• Logically conclude :
Background to the question
•The Urabi Pasha revolt was a resistance mode of reaction by the people of Egypt led by colonel Urabi Pasha against the exploitative foreign rule
• It was staged between 1881-1882.
• The revolt was largely manifestation of Egyptian nationalism.
Basis of argument
1. It aimed at liberating Egyptians from foreign control and from those people who had became puppets to the Europeans
2.It aimed at doing away with khedive Ismail's reign characterized by bankruptcy something which was making their country fall prey to foreign rule.
3. The success of the army led to the formation of a national party which aimed at intellectual and moral rehabilitation of Egypt
4. It was also aimed at solving national issues rather than individual issues i.e. creating employment, increasing crop production etc
5. The fact that the revolt involved people ranging from peasants to elites makes it a nationalistic revolt
6. It was anticorruption, mal administration and injustices committed by foreigners on Egyptian people, in the army promotions were not accorded on merit but on wealth status and birth.
7. The peasants due to nationalistic feelings strongly joined the revolt because they were over taxed, denied proper education and wealth facilities.
8. All people hated foreign culture and imposition of colonial rule.
9. Though Islam was used, it should not blindfold someone that it was a religious revolt, Islam was simply used to unite people.
1O. The defeat of Egyptians was not result of lack of national support but military inferiority of the Egyptians compared to the military superiority of the British poor organization of the Egyptian and British determination to the Egypt at all costs.
However part
11. The revolt centered in towns, the fact that those who were rebelling failed to mobilize people from rural areas indicates that it was not purely a nationalistic revolt because not all masses joined.
12. Urabi Pasha had personal motives, i.e. he had been removed from the p of minister of war for Egypt, and so he mobilized simply for his personal grievances.
13. Others joined the war due to the influence of the teaching and preaching of Jamal- Din-al- Afghan who advocated for the liberation of Moslem world from Europeans including Egypt.
14. The army as a unit/ sector had its own grievances, they resented lack c. pay and monopoly of promotion in the army by foreigners, and they also resented early" retirement and retrenchment.
15. Egyptian Muslim masses joined the revolt to simply purify Islam. They detested the infiltration of European Christians and their foreign cultures which had polluted the Muslim Arab culture.
In a nutshell, despite the few traits of individualistic interests especially in terms of leadership and organization, the Urabi Pasha revolt was a nationalitistic against the exploitative British foreign rule.


• Brief account of the history of Egypt.
• Clearly explain the causes of the loss of Egyptian independence and its effects to Egypt and A Africa,
Back ground to the question
Egypt lost its independence to Britain in 1882 after the success suppression of the Urabi Pasha revolt.
Causes of the loss of independence
1. Completion of the Suez Canal which reduced distance from the Far East by about 4000 miles.
2. Economic potential of Egypt especially the Nile valley which would provide good opportunities for cash crop growing.
3. Weakness in the army both in organization and weaponry levels.
4. Failure of the Urabi revolts
5. The large number of European nationalities in Egypt especially French and British.
6. The decline of the Ottoman Empire which gave way to European interests in Egypt
7. The coming of Tawfiq to power that was a puppet.
8. The period of scramble and partition was unfolding and Egypt was not exceptional.
9. Bismarck’s support for Britain takeover of Egypt.
10. Weak leadership i.e. Mohammed Seyyid 1854 -1863, Khedive Ismail 1863-79 and Tawfiq 1879-82
11. The strategic location of Egypt which attracted Europeans especially the British.
12. Financial weaknesses of Khedive Ismail of over borrowing which led to formation of European commission to avert the situation
13. Absence of the French in 1882 which gave the Britain a free hand.
Consequences to Egypt and Africa in general.
1. France lost claims over Egypt and went to other areas causing crises e.g. the F ashoda incident of 1898.
every homestead was to grow cotton, Aswan high dam was completed, and irrigation canals were expanded. However Cotton products were sold to the Egyptians at high prices and no industry was constructed.
3. Developed public works in Egypt i.e. Harbours were modernized to support increasing imports and exports. All this was done to ease the work of European exploitation of Egyptian resources.
4. Drainage facilities were habilitated i.e. there's general improvement in Hydro electric power supply leading to improvement in commerce. However all meant for easy exploitation of Egyptian resources.
5. Improved the management of the Suez Canal which offered a shortest route to India, thus the customs department of Egypt was busy and got a lot of revenue. However much of the was repatriated to Britain
6. Put ill place monetary policies by constructing banks. However Egyptians were given loans at high interest rates so many failed to pay back and their businesses ended up in the hands of Europeans (confiscated)
7. Improved transport network roads making towns like Cairo and Alexandria were constructed. However he only did this in towns and neglected villages thus regional imbalances.
8. He established a strong police force which ensured law and order. However this police always favoured the British while it harashed Egyptians.
9. He urbanized Egypt, Cairo became an international city. However towns were only for the British and many nationals were sent to villages
10. He tried to pay off the Egyptian debts which had been accumulated by Khedive Ismail. However he failed to fully pay the debts yet he had a lot of money.
11. He encouraged primary education. However he neglected secondary and university education and English became the official language.
12. He established a strong judicial system which helped to promote justice. However the sector always favoured the British.
13. The legislative assembly was introduced to enable Egyptians to participate in their countries affairs. However it was designed to suit the British interest.
14. He turned Egypt in to a cash crop economy with cotton fanning the biggest source of foreign exchanged. But the whole of it almost went to Britain.
In conclusion, Lord Cromer's polices in Egypt were not any peculiar to colonial policies elsewhere in Africa; they were designed to benefit the metropolitan Britain; any developments in Egypt were mere spillovers.


• Lewanika’s background.
• Analyze his achievements.
• Consider his failures.
• Conclude logically.
Points to consider.
1. He was born around 1830's and became a king of the lozi in 1876.
2. He visited London on an adventurous tour sponsored by British colonialists from where he picked interest in education and Christianity.
3. Had stiff succession disputes before he took over power; however he was helped by slave traders (Angola) to succeed.
4. He was a skilled statesman and diplomat in character but he was aware of the colonial threats in Congo.
5. He centralized the administration and he appointed his own local chiefs in areas that proved disloyal.
6. Made several concessions with the British, e.g. the Lochner treaty of 1890, 1898 Lawley treaty that earned him reputation:
7. The treaties he signed helped him to retain independence for some time.
8. He carried out international trade contacts with the Portuguese dealing in pangas, clothes and later also traded with the British before the relations with the British South African company.
9. He was the commander in chief of armed forces, so he created a strong army for expansion and protection of the kingdom.
10. He is credited for having participated in the abolition of slave trade.
11. Education and Christianity was encouraged among the Lozi, though he was not converted.
12. He obtained jobs for his people as warrant chief in the nearby acquired British territories e.g. in Mashona and Matebele land.
13. He resisted against Massive land alienation by the British in his kingdom.
14. He made reforms in agriculture, used better farming methods his kingdom.
15. He banned the burning of men found guilty to with banned the burning of men found guilty to witchcraft hence modernizer
His failures
1. He became victim of the European treaty signing, so lacked foresight
2. He supported European cultures like Christianity and education which sabotaged traditional culture of the Lozi
3. Due to his collaboration with the whites, he finally lost his independence
4He influenced the early loss of the Ndebele independence due to his collaborative skills.
Despite the fact that he achieved a lot of the Lozi, as a modernizer finally lost his independence. Hence he was both a Hero and a Villia.


1. Lugard Frederick was born in 1858 to missionary parents in fort St Georg.
2. He was educated in England and briefly trained at the royal military college.
3. At 21 years, he joined the British army and was posted to India; he one served in Afghanistan and Burma.
4. As a British administrator and soldier, he pioneered the system of indirect rule in colonial Africa.
5. He in 1880's left the army to fight slavery in east and central Africa, in h expeditions; he was almost killed in an attack on Arab slave traders in asaland (Malawi)
6. He in 1890 led an expedition to the Buganda kingdom and later he negotiated end to the civil war and in the end established a British protectorate
7. He was in 1892 charged of using excessive power to subdue the Bagar rulers but he denied those accusations.
8. He in I 894 worked for the royal Niger Company and he managed to sec., treaties from those people who lived along the Niger River in Nigeria.
9. This made him more prominent and the British government appointed leader of the WestAfiican frontier force all intended to block French invasion in West Africa.
10. In 1900, he was appointed high commissioner of northern Nigeria and 1904; he had conquered the Sokoto Caliphate and much of the surrounding areas.
11. He then resorted to pre-colonial rulers to serve as local administrators as he lacked finances to manage that large part under his control.
12. He used them to collect taxes, lead their fellow Africans and this system later came to be known as indirect rule.
13. He was later shifted to east African by the British government to take over IBEACO from William MacKinnon who had failed to succeed in the region. .
14. While in East Africa, he frustrating Germany advance to Buganda by stopping Charles Stokes who was believed to be heading to Buganda from Tanganyika
15. He signed a number of treaties with east African local chiefs e.g. he signed a treaty of protection with Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda in 1890.
16. He was active in the political-religious wars when he armed the Protestants against the Catholics and Moslems no wonder the Protestants defeated them on the Bunyoro boarder."
17. Lugard persuaded Sahm Bay to bring his soldiers join the force 0 f IBEACO; he used that to defeat his opponents.
18. He then built several ports in order to weaken Bunyoro with the help of Semei Kakungulu.
19. In 1919 retired from the colonial service though he remained active in colonial policy making.
20. He in 1922 published a book entitled "The dual mandate in British tropical Africa" which outlined his theories of colonial rule in Afiica.
21. Then served as a British representative on the League of Nations permanent mandates commission between 1923-1939.
22. He also served as chairman of the international institute of African languages and cultures.
23. All that made him receive the title of Baron in 1928.
24. He however died in 1945 and he is heavily remembered in the British books for having extended British imperialism in west and East African.



His background.
1. Kabalega was born in 1850 to Omukama Kamurasi and Kanyange Nyamutahungura, in present day Toro.
2. He was a direct descendant of the Luo who invaded Bunyoro from around 1650. AD
3. He was an illegitimate son having been born outside the traditional Bun. Culture
4. He spent his early life with his maternal uncles at Bulega across Lake Albert.
5. When he was brought back at his father’s court he was referred to as "Akaana ka Bulega"
6. The above was later shortened to Kabalega.
7. Following the death of IUs father in 1870 he was involved in power struggle with his brother Kabigumire over the throne.
8. Because he had distinguished himself as a courageous fighter and because of his social character, he had the support of his father's army and that of majority commoners.
9. With the help of the Arabs. his father's body guards and Langi mercenaries ascended to powerI throne
10. He imrnediately killed Kabigurnire and exiled members of the royal famine:: and other opponent chiefs.
11. As a king he started by strengthening the week army left by Kamurasi using recruits from Achoili and Langi
12. He appointed R wabudongo as his army commander, he divided it into regiments of 1,500 men each, and he used it to defeat Buganda and to resist the British. ,
13. He is credited for having created unity in Bunyoro.
14. He destroyed the 3 social classes and he married from all the 3 classes encouraged the rest of Bunyoro to do the same in order to destroy disunity.
15. In 1876 he re-captured Toro which had ceded from Bunyoro in 183 tried to revive the strength and fame of former Bunyoro Kitara Empire.
16. Between 1875 - 1885 he conquered several counties of Buganda and i.e.Mubende.
17. He crossed Nile Busoga where he collected taxes and tributes fromchiefs.
chiefs by 1885
18. He managed to defeat the Egyptian forces led by Sir Samuel Baker at Masindi.
19. His expansionism created as many enemies as admirers. He conflicted with Buganda, Toro, Ankole, but none of the above defeated him.
20. He participated in long distance trade with the coastal Arabs and Swahili as well as Khortoumers from whom he attained modem rifles.
21. In the first invasion of 1891 he defeated his enemies i.e. Buganda, Toro, Ankole, and Egyptians under Samuel Baker.
22. In 1894 colonel Colville invaded him with 8 British officers, 400 Sudanese, 15,000 Baganda in the second invasion.
23. He abandoned Emparo his capital and resorted to guerrilla warfare against the British.
24. In 1898 he was finally deposed and a council of regents was set up to assist the new Omukama his son Yosia Kitahimbwa.
25. He retreated to Budongo forest and re-organized his army.
26. In 1898hefoughtanddefeatedtheBritisb-GandaarmyinMasindibut later he was defeated by Semei Kakungulu and retreated to Budongo forest forcing him back to Lango
27. While in Lango he was joined by Mwanga who was also fighting the British, however it was too late for them, they were captured by Kakungulu in 1899 and they were exiled to Seychelles islands.
28. In 1923 he was allowed to return as a citizen but died on the way back at Jinja Mpumudde.
29. He was buried at Mparo his capital present day Hoima.
30. He is remembered in Bunyoro/Uganda as a hero who died with Bunyoro's fighting spirit
31. However, his resistance retarded the development of social services in Bunyoro.
32. His resistance also affected economic infrastructures.



The candidate is required to analyze the factors that undermined African resistance against European colonial rule drawing examples from the career of' Lubengula centering on the 1893 - 94 British Ndebele war.
Back ground to the question.
Lubengula succeeded his father Mzilikazi as a ruler of the Ndebele state in Central Africa
Points to consider
1. British military superiority, whereas the British were armed with the most modem weapons of the time such as the Maxim gun and canyons, the Ndebele had low grade military hard ware such as clubs, bows, and arrows. Stones and witchcraft. To worsen matters even the few guns the Ndebele had were obsolete. Just like chief Gilele of Dahomey puts it that "He who makes powder wins the battle"
2. The British had imposed an arms embargo on the Ndebele hence undermining their resistance. Just like the French did to Samoure Toure of the Mandiks.
3.The Ndebele lacked adequate military training thus applied ineffective tactics of warfare against the British South African company forces (pioneer column of Cecil Rhodes
4. The Ndebele resistors like other African resistors else' where were disunited, one group preferred to negotiate while the young generation preferred to continue fighting against the British.
5. The Africans lacked racial solidarity, the shona fought alongside the British South African company forces of Cecil Rhodes to crush the Ndebele. In fact lack of unity was the main cause of failure of the African resistors.
6. Poor leadership also undermined African resistance, its widely acceptable that by 1894 Lubengula was too old to lead a meaningful armed resistance war against the British colonizers
7. Natural calamities also undermined Lubengula led Ndebele resistance they were severely hit by rinder pest and small pox which weakened them. .
8. He contained the civil wars that followed after his enthronement.
9. Lubengula managed to contain and control the ambitions of Ndebele warrior who had wished to declare war on the whites who were settling in Matebele land.
10. He allowed missionaries to enter Matebele land. Although he restricted them from participating in the political aspects of Matebele land.
11. He tried to divert the white man's attention from his own people to the Shona. This was ensured by granting concessions based on Shona territories.
Negative contributions/failures.
1. Lubengula gave limited support o the missionaries and so they never helped in the development of Matabele land.
2. The treaties he signed like the Moffat treaty were in the future used by Europeans to colonize Matebele land.
3. He encouraged the whites to occupy part of Mash on a land which was later used as a stepping stone in the colonization of Matabele land.
4. Lubengula ruthlessly suppressed his opponents which created long term enmity. This explains why people like Lewanika of the Lozi collaborated & with the British against the Ndebele.
5. He facilitated the exploitation of central African resources through the concession of 1888.
6. Lubengula failed to establish diplomatic relations with other states, hence they never raised a failure to save him from British Colonialism
7. Lubengula was defeated in 1893 war which eventually led to his death and subsequent loss of Matebele independence.


Describe the career of Rhodes and show his positive and negative contributions in the establishment of colonial rule in central Africa
Then conclude logically.
Points to consider.
1. BominEngland in l853 later joined his brother in Natal.
2. He was one of the founders of the British South African company.
3. He later went for further studies in the Oxford University
4. In 1881, he became a mernber of parliament of the Cape colony.
5. He and his men built a town of Salis bury i.e. future capital of'Zirnbabwe in 1890,
6. At 25years he was a millionaire, and at 34 he bought his rival company of Barney Bamet which made him monopolize diamond export in South Africa
7. He in 1890 forced the British government to declare a protectorate over Botswana Botswana
8. He had a dream of painting the whole of Africa red especially from cape to Cairo.
His role.
I. He signed treaties with Africans which led to the colonization of those respective areas e.g. in 1888 he sent Rudd to sign a treaty with Lubengula, i.e. Rudd concession, in 1890, he signed the Lochner treaty with Lewar which helped him colonize Barotse land heeven signed the Moffat treaty with Lubengula
2. He formed the British South African company which exploited and led to the colonization of areas like Matebele and Mashona land etc.
3. He formed the pioneer column force which fought different resistances Africa like the Chimulenga rebellion making it easy to occupy Mashona Matebele land
4. He improved the transport network which eased colonization e.g. railway line from port Salisbury to Cape Town.
5. He called upon his home government to take over areas like southern Botswana area and river Zambezi
6. He divided up Africans e.g. he made an alliance with Kharna of'Ngwa' and gave Rhodes one thousand soldiers who were used to take over Zimbabwe.
7. He established internal trade stations in Central Africa as centers for facilitating British influence such as Inyati, Bulawayo, and Salisburj
8. He provided financial resources and man power to execute British colonial administration.
9. He solicited collaborators for extension of British imperialism e.g. Levof the Lozi .
10. He in 1896 organized and dispatched the Jameson raid.
Conclude remark. Lubengula's resistance just Iike other African resistors elsewhere as undermined by a number short comings ranging from European superiority to lack of proper preparation and nationalism by the Africans.


• Brief back about Cetewayo.
• Show his positive and negative contributions in the history of the Zulu kingdom.
• Conclude
When Shaka died in 1828, he was succeeded by Dingane up to 1840 when he was defeated by Mpande who got assistance from the Boers whom in return he gave some Zulu land and catties. This annoyed the Zulu worriers. When Cetewoyo fought him, they all sided with Cetewoyo who over ran Mbulazi and became Zulu king in 1872.
NB. His contributions to Zulu kingdom were both positive and negative.
His Contributions (Positive)
1. Under Cetewayo, the Zulu military was restored to its original vigour andthe Zulu army reached the highest stage of its perfection although their deployment for major campaigns was discouraged.
2. Cetewayo kept the Zulu independence up to 1879 when he was defeated at the battle of Ulundi.
3. He contributed to the formation of the Pretoria convention.
4. Contributed to the abandonment of lord Carnarvon's policy of a federation of white states in South Africa though this did not safeguard the Zulu nation,
5. Cetewayo prevented Zulu attack on Natal which could have been disastrous.
6. The activities of Cetewayo postponed the annexation of Zulu by the British
7. Allowed raids on neighbors’ to resume as a means to uphold unity among the regiments
8. Cetewayo kept diplomatically silent against the Boers who were trespasser e the port of Laurence Marques (Maputo) thus avoided military confrontation with the Boers
9. Adopted a friendly approach to the British till 1877 when the later occupied Transvaal.
10. Revived the declining Zulu nationalism and prosperity
11. Allowed missionaries to settle in his kingdom though they were not allowed.
to preach Christianity for fear of destabilization of the kingdom
12. Advocated for the restoration of Zulu land ceded to the Boers by Mpande
1. His re-occupation ofblood river area led to conflict hence loss of Zulu independence
2. Kept quite when the Boers encroached on Zululand.
3. Failed to control worriers who were chasing one of the whites. This was later used as an excuse for war by the whites.
4. Failure to safeguard Zulu independence beyond 1879
5. He allowed Stepstone to attend his coronation which gave the whites opportunity to get enough information about the Zulu nation and to plan against it.
6. He encouraged trade between his state and natal Boers. This brought the Boers closer to the Zulu nation which later costed his kingdom.


• Describe the career of Bishop AjayCrowther
• Show his role in the spread of Christianity
• Identify the challenges faced by Bishop Ajay Crowther
• Conclude.
His background and role
1. He was born in1806 in Oshogun near Iseyin in Yoruba land.
2. He was sold as a slave during the time of Yoruba civil wars in 1821 but rescued by the British anti-slave squadron and resettled in free town in Sieraleone in 1823
3. Crowther got converted to Christianity and baptized on 11th December 1825 and renamed Samuel Crowther.
4. He joined Islington parish school or missionary training in London in 1826.
5. In 1827 he joined Fourah Bay College in Sierra Leon.
6. In 1841 he was sent to the Niger Delta territories where he did commendable work and his service won him credit
7. In 1843 he was ordained as a reverend having spent a long period after his studies.
8. In 1845 he was sent to Yoruba land as a missionary
9. In 1857he helped in the establishment of Onitsha and Igbebe mission stations
10. He is credited for having translated Christian books into Yoruba local language and other dialects.
11. He further wrote books in the grammar of Nupe and Ibo.
12. In 1864 having been consecrated as a Bishop he was supported by Rev. Henry Venn a white although other whites protested it because of his colour.
1. While a bishop he faced many challenges such as diverse languages in West Africa thus he could not effectively communicate to all his people.
2. There were long distances over which he had to travel much of it on foot and water transport which was irregular.
3. He faced commercial struggle between the European companies and the African coastal tribes.
4. There were many customs and cultures that were against Christianity. Thus
he faced stiff resistance from them
5. Muslims who were in most parts of West Africans refused to cooperate with him and were spreading their faith by jihads.
6. The diocese given to him was not under the British area of control yet he was a protestant and thus agent of the British.
7. Therefore he could not work under the French and Muslims who were enemies of the British and protestant faith.
8. He was not an independent Bishop with established revenue but depending on church missionary society for his salary and subject to itscontrol.



• Give reasons which facilitated the work of the European Christian Missionaries in Central Africa
• Give examples of missionary groups in Central Africa of White fathers, Roman Catholic Mission, Baptist Mission, London Missionary Society, Parish evangelical Mission, Livingstone a Mission, Methodists etc.
Factors to consider
1. Missionaries condemned inhuman slave trade e.g. the Amagoche Yao who were tortured by the slave trading Amachinga Yao.
2. Preached against inequality. Condemned the social stratification e.g. among the Ndebele, pleasing the least privileged Holicaste.
3. Provided medical facilities hence wining the hearts of Africans.
4. Mistrust of African traditional religion like the Mwari and Mlimo Cults which failed in the Shona-Ndebele.
5. The influence of Islam was not much felt and Moslem converts could not ably challenge European Missionaries.
6. Use of gifts (bribes) to win African converts and leaders.
7. Collaboration with chartered companies e.g. Rev.Coillard with the British, South African Company.
8. Appeal for home government protection (LMS) in the British colonization of Ndebele.
9. They were offered land where to put mission stations and cultivation of food supplies.
1o. They got adequate geographical knowledge from early explorers in the area
11. Missionaries were committed to their work.
12. Presence of navigable rivers like Zambezi eased Transport into the Interior
13. They constructed several stations like Inyat and Magomero.
14. There were many missionary groups operating all over central Africa
15. Later establishment of lull effective colonial control in Central Africa by their home governments like the Ndebele by the British which gave them protection.
16. They used African interpreters.
17. They used friendly approach e.g. Rev. Helm convinced Lubengula to allow him operate in his Kingdom.
18. Conflict among some African groups favoured missionary work e.g. Amagocba Vs Amachinga, Mukasa Vs Bemba.
19. They easily adapted to the local languages e.g. even translated the Bible into local languages.
20. Missionary involvement in Africa's affairs as advisers like Francois Collard to Rhama and Lewanika.
21. They had medical facilities as a result of industrial revolution.
22. The climate in some areas wasn't all that hostile e.g. Matebele land.
23. Use of words of wisdom like "love your neighbour as you love yourself’’.
24. They were committed to their work.



•Brief background of the Livingstonia mission in Nyasa land. Then clearly explain the activities of the Livingstonia mission in Nyasa land (Malawi) during the second half of the 19th century.
Basis for Answer
1. In 18 75, the Livrngstonia mission was established by the free church of Scotland in Cape maclear at the southern port of Lake Nyasa.
2. The Missionaries under took the guidance of doctor Robert laws and were able to perform a number of works in Nyasa land
3. They built schools like Barotse, Biantyre, lnyati to provide education. Over 2000 children were attending schools among the Tonga by 1890.
4. Medicine centres were opened to help treat diseases so as to attract people especially Amachinga Yao who did not like Christianity at the beginning.
5. Missionaries helped to pacify conflicting societies in Malawi e.g. Mbelwa settled scores with the Tonga and Tumbuka. Tonga reconciled with Ngoni slave raiders
6. They played an active role in stopping slave trade e.g. the Ngoni slave raiders reconciled with the Tonga victims.
7. Missionaries introduced cash crops and new methods of production, cash crops like cotton, tobacco, coffee and oranges were introduced.
8. Missionaries performed activities which Africans perceived as miracles e.g. doctor Elms prayed for rain and it rained which the traditional rain makers had failed
9. Industries were established to process the cash crops grown.
10. The missionaries also promoted legitimate trade in order to improve on people's lives e.g. Chief Mbelwa exchanged food crops for cotton cloth with missionaries.
11. They preached Christianity, established churches and trained African preachers; they translated the bible into local languages.
12. Missionaries constructed roads e.g. the Stevenson road connecting Lake Malawi and Tanganyika, steamer services on Lake Malawi among others.
13. Missionaries created divisionism in African societies as most converts supported colonialism.
14. The Livingstone mission persuaded the Ngoni and Tonga to accept colonialism e.g. they signed a treaty with chief Mbelwa of Ngoni.
15. Missionaries also promoted western culture in Nyasa land e.g. the Livingstonia mission extended western cultures to Banian on the western shores of Lake Nyasa in 1881. They also extended their influence among the Tonga, Ngoni among others.
16. The Livingstonia mission also promoted a western oriented economy in Nyasaland.
17. Missionaries were not readily accepted by the Ngoni, doctor Laws and James Stewart were kept at bay for some time by chief Chikusi, Chief Mbelwa, however later they allowed Stewart in 1879 to spread Christian,



• Brief background about missionary enterprise in Africa
• Identify the various ways Africans reacted to missionary work
• Give reasons for the valid response
• Logically conclude
Background of the Question
• Modem missionary work in Africa began in the 19th century following religious revolution in Europe and America.
• Various missionary groups operated in Africa, in West Africa there was the church missionary society which operated in Sierra Leone in 1805 among the freed states, Church of England societies in Ghana 1752, Reverand Samuel Crowther Ajai in Nigeria:
•In East Africa there was the Holy Ghost fathers church missionary society, Holy Roman Catholics among others
• In central Africa there was the university missionary to Central Africa (UMCA) of Livingston plus numerous independent churches.
• In South Africa there was church missionary society and London missionary society among others.
• Africans received missionaries either negatively, positively or indifferently.
This was due to a number of factors and considerations as shown below.
1. Presence of some form of religions before the coming of missionaries either African traditional religion or Islam. In areas where the above were strongly respected, missionaries were resisted e.g. S. Nigeria However where African traditional religions were weak missionaries were welcomed.
2. Effect of slave trade, societies that had been victims of slave trade like the Makonde of central Africa we loomed missionaries, while those that benefited like the Nyamwezi resisted the missionary work.
3. Disagreement among African societies, among the Ibo missionaries warmly received hoping to use them against their enemies the Ibadans from the north, the Lozi also welcomed missionaries because they were threatened by their neighbours.
4. Influence of petty gifts like old chairs, umbrellas, mirrors and so on African leaders like those o of Buganda were seduced by such gifts to accept missionary work.
5. The way the Europeans approached Africans, where very friendly and softly approached Africans like in Buganda and northern Nigeria, Africans welcomed them positively. The reverse is true where the Europeans used a harsh approach like in southern Nigeria.
6. Presence of opportunists, in African societies, there existed self styled and selfish people, they collaborated with missionaries; however where Africans
had the same mission of resistance like in Islamic states of southern Nigeria missionary work was out rightly rejected.
7. Presence of natural calamities like droughts and epidemics, societies that were seriously hit by such calamities were forced to welcome missionaries hoping to get assistance. On the other hand economically strong societies did not see any reason to accept missionary interference.
8. Presence of succession disputes, rivaling princes always took opposite side regarding missionary work, once one collaborated with them another resisted.
9. Some African leaders like Mutesa I of Buganda, Lewanika of Lozi and Khama of Ngwato welcomed missionaries hoping to get guns to protect their kingdoms.
10. The direction from where European missionaries came shaped negative response of some Africans. For example the Banyoro resisted because the missionaries came from Buganda, the Asante resisted because they came from Fante.
11. The attitude of Africans towards Europeans, in societies where missionaries were looked at as elevating force like in Buganda, Lozi among others. Missionaries were positively received, on the other hand where Europeans were associated with bad omens like among the Nandi where they were called red devils, missionary work was rejected.
12. Fear of loss of independence, strong societies like the Ndebele, Nandi, and Bunyoro resisted missionaries because they associated them with colonialists. On the other hand weak societies that were threatened by their neighbours like the Fante, Buganda, Shona, Lozi, and Ngwato welcomed missionaries as a way of offsetting the threats of their neighbours.
13. The political organizations of African societies, among centralized societies, missionaries were easily being accepted as long as the top leaders were convinced for instance in Buganda. However among the Acephorous societies this was not the case due to lack a clear defined authority


• Brief background about missionary activity in Malawi
•Identify the activities and show their positive or negative effect on the people of Malawi
• Logically conclude
Background to the Question
• In the whole of central Africa, missionary enterprise was more active in Malawi.
• The major missionary groups that operated include the Livingstonia mission, London missionary society, Church of Scotland plus evangelical mission among others.
• These missionary groups especially the Livingstonia mission impacted on the people of Nyasa land both positively and negatively through their various activities.
Points to consider
1. They built schools; these provided formal education to the people of Malawi which improved on their literacy level.
2. They educated Africans who championed nationalism and struggle for independence of Malawi. However these educated people undermined African culture.
3. They opened up medical centres and other health facilities e.g. the Livingstonia hospital. This helped to improve on the hygiene and health standards of the people of Malawi.
4. They also established industries. These provided manufactured goods to people thus improving on their standards of living. Provided employment opportunities to unskilled workers. Provided markets for agricultural products among others.
5. However the industries undermined the development of local artists like black smiths since their products were regarded as inferior, besides they promoted exploitation of African labour.
6. Preached Christianity thus many people were converted e.g. the Amachinga Yao, Tanga thus Africans dropped immoral acts like human
sacrifice, idol worshiping etc, many people became pastors thus the emergency of independent churches like the Zionist church of Elliot Kamwana. However this led to the rejection of even the valuable African cultural values, there arose divisionism between converts and non converts even in families and to crown it all it laid foundation for colonization of Malawi (Nyasa land).
7. Missionaries introduced cash crop growing like cotton; it led to provision 0f income and employment to people although the returns were bad. However this undermined food crop growing leading to famine, it also lead to land alienation and forced labour plus migrant labourers which affected families
8. They also denounced and worked against slave trade, this saved the victim of slavery like the Tonga people from the Ngoni harassment. However the beneficiaries of the trade like the Ngoni were left jobless.
9. Missionaries constructed roads like Stevenson road connecting Lake Malawi and Tanganyika, steamer services on Lake Malawi etc. this improved on people's welfare in terms of movement, it improved on trading activities thus creating employment opportunities. However, Africans were made t offer forced labour in the construction, besides the routes were used to extend European colonialism and exploitation of Nyasaland.
10. They also promoted legitimate trade, e.g. chief Mbelwa sold food crops: in exchange for cheap cotton cloths. The trade provided employment option to some Africans and helped them to get European goods plus aiding the total ending of slave trade. However Africans were exploited in terms of exchanging valuable goods for cheap ones.
11. The missionaries also engaged in reconciling rivaling parties for instance _ areas of Malawi e.g. the quarrels between chief Mbelwa and Tongwa ended, Tonga and Ngoni among others. This helped to create peace and safer- However it created a peaceful environment for the colonization of Malawi. It also led to influx of whites in Nyasa lan


• Brief background about missionary activity in Uganda.
• Clearly explain the Christian missionary in British colonization of Buganda and Uganda.
Background to the Question
• Christian missionaries were invited by Kabaka Mutesa I of Bug and a in 1875.
• The first group arrived in 1877 and these were Protestants from CMS 1879 another group of Roman Catholics arrived.
• It is up on this background that missionaries involved in the political
Affairs of Buganda and Uganda that they laid a foundation in the colonization of Uganda.
Role of Missionaries
1. Christian missionaries created divisionism among the people of Uganda e.g. the protestants (Wangereza) conflicted the catholic (Wafaransa). The two groups also conflicted with Moslems and traditionalists.
2. The missionaries called upon home support e.g. the CMS called up on the British East African Company of Lugard for protection.
3. They constructed schools and taught western education which brain washed the people of U ganda. Schools like Gayaza, Kisubi etc trained interpreters and guides of colonialists.
4. Besides the products of their education became collaborators e.g. Apollo Kaggwa
5. Missionaries were influential in the signing of treaties which placed Buganda and Uganda in the hands of colonialists. E.g. Johnston recognized the assistance of the CMS especially Bishop Tucker in the signing of the Buganda agreement.
6. The missionaries established mission stations that were later used as administrative centers colonialists' e.g. Mengo.
7. Missionaries often availed financial assistance to chartered companies e.g. the CMC bailed out the IBEACO when it was on verge of withdraw due to financial bankruptcy in 1892.
8. They preached the gospel of love and forgiveness which made their converts to support British colonialists.
9. The missionaries weakened African societies through fighting religious wars e.g. Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda was deposed after the religious wars in 1893.
10. Missionaries undermined the spread of Islam in Buganda and Uganda in general. Islam was bound to lead to resistance of British colonialism.
11. Christianity reduced the attachment of people to their traditional religion and leaders thus undermining the strength of resistance. This explains why Mwanga's resistance was weak.
12. The missionaries' activities led to the rise of Buganda collaborators like Semei Kakungulu, Apollo Kaggwa, Zakaria Kisingiri, pages in the Kabaka court among others.
13. They also advocated for the construction of transport and communication lines that helped in extension of British colonial rule e.g. to Eastern Uganda.
14. Missionaries encouraged the growing of cash crops by their converts this formed the basis of colonial economic revenue for extending British rule in Uganda
15. Provided medical services, constructed hospitals like Mengo, provided malaria drugs, small pox etc. this did not only make Ugandans fall in love with whites but the medical services were also extended to colonial officials.
16. Christian missionaries and their converts participated in active fighting against resistors like Mwanga and Kabalega.
17. Missionaries provided guide services to colonial agents in areas of Uganda e.g. they informed them of safe areas (Buganda) trouble some areas (Bunyoro, Acholi and Karamoja) and advised them on the mode of handling.


These were categorised  into political,  economic  and social aspects. Political
1.    Egyptian  nationalism  was silenced  and the independence  which  Egypt had attained  costly as late as 1876 from the hands of the Turkey,  in 1882 its control  was taken over by Britain until  1956. Urabi Pasha was exiled and Egyptians  settled down for dictates of colonial  rule. The  first  British  administrator   in Egypt  was  called  Lord  Crommer  who  governed  Egypt from 1883-1907.
2.    There was constitutional  reforms  in Egypt  A new constitution  was proclaimed  and organic law of British setting was established  in Egypt in 1883. This followed  a number of judicial reforms  where  most  of the  native  Egyptian   law  was  replaced   by  British  law .. o fit  the interests of colonial  administration.
3.    An  efficient  police  force  and  civil  service  was  established   headed  by  British  nationals, Some  of  these  were  local  Africans   who  had  attained   some  education   in  Europe  or  in elementally    schools  and  universities   established   by Egyptian   kings  especially   Khedive Ismail.  However  these  occupied  lower  offices  in police  force  and  in civil  service  as top ones were reserved for whites.
4.    There  was emergence  of a radical  group  in Egypt  known  as "Offendiya"   which  consisted mainly  the Egyptians  of Fellahin  origin.  This was the most  unprivileged  group  in Egypt and  strongly   anti-British policies.   They  attributed   all problems   in Egypt  after  1882  to' British.   After  world  war  I, this  group  led  the Egyptians   in  1922  in  demand   for  their independence  although it was not successful.
5.        The  1882 British  take  over  of  Egypt  resulted   into  the  Fashoda  incident.   France  was  a rightful   country   to  colonise   Egypt  but  when  Britain   silenced   the  Urabist   rebellion   in absence  of French  soldiers,  it declared  Egypt as its colony.  As a matter of revenge  in 1896, French  forces  led by captain  Merchand   from West  Africa  attempted  to take  over  Sudan When Britain  learnt of it, it dispatched  its soldiers  led by Lord Kitchener  into Sudan so as to safeguard  the flow of River NIle banks. The   two forces  almost erupted  into a war at a place called Fashoda.
6.        This was followed  by the Anglo-Egyptian   conquest  of Sudan in 1898. In Fashoda  incident
French  forces were inferior  militarily  and decided  to withdraw  leaving Britain  in Sudan in
1896. By the end of two years,  Britain  had weakened  the Mahdist government  of Caliph Abdallah   and a condominium  government  (two  foreign states  in   a joint  control  of another country) was formed in Sudan.
7.    British colonialists  made attempts  to stabilise the Egyptian financial base. The sole purpose of  this  was  to  organise  the  Egyptian   revenues   m a bid  to pay  back  the  sunk  loans  in Egyptian  economy to Britain and France .
8.     There was improvement  in agriculture  following  the introduction  of modernised  irrigation schemes  after  the  construction   of Aswan  high  dam whose  establishment   was  in  1898 :-
1902. Cash crops especially  cotton boosted in this period.
9.    Procesing  industries  were  set up in Egypt.  This was to assist  in breaking  down  the bulky cotton  raw  materials  into  small  valuable  form  that  can  easily  be shipped  to Lancashire industries  in Britain.  It should  be noted  that the development   of manufacturing   industries was discouraged  to eliminate  competition  for raw materials  and market for British  goods in Egypt.
10.    There  was  improvement   in  transport   and  communication    network   in  Egypt.  This  was necessary   if   desirable  raw  materials  was to be accessed  to processing  plants  from  their extraction   centres.  Equally  important,   the  delivery   of  British  goods  would  be  made respective   markets  in Egypt  using  these  roads.  European  administrators   and  troops  also used this   communication  system to execute their duties. Navigation  system along river Nile was also developed.


The eclipse  of Khedive  Ismail came with   a number of changes.  When the foreigners  over- threw Ismail  and replaced  him with Tewfiq.  the  Egyptian  independence  had almost gone. Tewfiq  was a mere  puppet  who never  helped  the Egyptians  to organise  their economy  in their own interests.
New  social  political   and  economic   policies   all  aiming   at  helping   the joint   financial comrmSSlOn to recover  debts  in Egyptian      economy were   put in place regardless of   their sour effects  to the natives.  This was spark  to the long existing  grievances  against  Ismail's government.  This revolt  is sometimes  called  a nationalistic  movement  because  all classes of people  were  involved  e.g.  the  Fellahms  (peasants).   the army.  civil  servants.  the elite group and the rest of the masses participated  In the war against  Ismail and his foreigners.
1.    Over taxation:
In a bid to attain their  financial  target as quickly  as possible,  taxes  were raised in order to
increase   government   revenue.  This  greatly  affected  the  Fellahins   class  (peasants)  who were poor while some rich able ones were exempted  from this taxation  and therefore  their fiscal and financial  policies  made the revolt inevitable.
2.    Discontented  army:
To squeeze  the government  expenditure.  the army privileges  were drastically  reduced  and the size of the army was also cut down e.g. their salaries,  food rations,  and the number  of uniforms  etc. all reduced.  On top of this, the Europeans reserved  high posts in the army for foreign   soldiers,   and  not  for  the  nationals.   They  hated  the  European   advice  of  army demobilisation   up to  1500 soldiers  only.  With  this  number  of solidiers,   in case  of any conflicts with the Europeans  as it was expected,  Egyptians  had to be defeated.
3.    Reduction  of the state  expenditure:
To reduce  the government  expenditure,   the number  of Egyptians employed  was reduced and  most   schemes   of  development    started   by  Ismail   were   abandoned.    Luxurious expenditure   at king's curt was cut down  and this  led to complaints  emerging  out of the nobility  class.
4.    Grievances  of civil servants:
Civil  servants  were  also  not  happy because   of the  reduction   of  their  salaries  and  their numbers.   On top  of  this, most  of the top  posts  in the government   were  taken  over  by Europeans.  They therefore  hoped to re-instate  their rights by joining  the Urabist  revolt.
5.    Hatred of current tax officials:
The replacement  of Egyptian  nationals  with corrupt ~d  inefficient  Europeans  was another cause  for war.  Most  of government   departments   were put under  the control  of the weak French!  British  and  Turkish  officials.   Their  mode  of work greatly  targeted   at serving interests  of foreigners  that resulted into  1880-1881  Urabist revolt.
6.    Foreign  control of Egyptian  finances:
The  revolt   also  broke   out  because   the  Egyptians    bated   the  foreign   Anglo-French management   of their  economy.  Because   of this  policy,  Egyptians   conditioned   them  to fulfil  their  international   debt obligations   which  Egyptian  kings  had incurred  worldwide. This   proposal    was  rejected    by  the   Anglo-French     officials.    This   rejection    caused frustrations  to the Egyptian  resulting  to nationalistic  outburst.
7.    The elite class grievances:
This provided the philosophical   backbone of   the Urabist  uprising.  Naturally   they  hated foreign   administration    in  their economic  and political affairs.  This  made  them  become unemployed.  Upset by the level of corruption  and inefficiency in their offices at the hands of  foreigners,   the  educated   nationalists   started   demanding   Tewfiq   to  chase  away  the foreigners  from their country hence Urabist revolt becoming  inevitable.
8.    The problem  of Nepotism:
Worse  still they  hated  the system  of Ismail  who was succeeded  by his son Tewfiq  who never improved  the situation either since he was a puppet of Europeans.  The elite class felt they would  make a change given a chance to administer Egypt.
9.    The use of Turkish language  was also a pain to the traditional  Egyptians:
Apart from undermining  the integrity  for the country,  such a language  was real evidence for lack of sovereignty  and hence it sparked off the nationalists'   feelings of Egyptians.
10.  The traditional  Muslim  Egyptians  hated the Christian  Europeans.  To them it seemed  as if Europeans  (Christians)  were out to inherit    the Muslim world. The French had occupied  the Muslim  State  of Algeria  in  183():and  Tunusia  in  1881. Their  influence  was also  being increased  in the Muslim Moroccan  State at the time. Therefore  the Muslim  Egyptians  tried to curb down the Christianity  influence  in their country,
11.  Emergency  of Colonel Urabi Pasha:
This influenced  the whole  struggle  since for a long time the causes  for the revolt bad been accumulating  but without  a leader  to lead them  into war. The leadership  of the revolts was taken  by 'One  of the  'army  officers   Colonel  Urabi  Pasha,  hence  the  origin  of the  name Urabist   Revolt.  The  army  took  the lead because  they were  armed  and they bad been  hit
hardest by abolition of their privileges  by European  commission.
Having  joined  the army  at an early  age of  17, Urabi Pasha  just  like most Egyptians  had suffered at the hands of the Senior Turkish officers. He therefore  inspired the revolt and led the armed  struggle  with  a lot of  confidence.  He won  the support  of the junior  Egyptian officers in the army. This kind of support gave the movement  a nationalistic  outlook.
Urabi  Pasha  prepared   a  confrontation    and  started   fortifying   Alexandria.   At  that  time, France was busy dealing  with a revolt in Tunisia  and had  lost many  soldiers in 1870-1871
Franco-Prussian   war. Therefore,  no French  soldiers  were  in Egypt  at the beginning  of this
Urabist revolt. This gave Britain  a chance to act alone in silencing  the revolt.
On  11th   July  1882.  the  British  Navy  power  bombarded   Alexandria.   On  13th  September
1882, General  Wolsley  defeated  the Urabist  forces  at the battle of Tel-el-Kabir,  Two  days later,  Urabi  Pasha  was  captured   in Cairo  and  exiled  in Ceylon  where  he remained  until l891 when he was allowed to return to Egypt.
After the defeat of Urabist  revolt,  Egypt  had lost her total independence  that it had gained in l876  from the hands of Turkish  empire.  Britain  took this chance  to occupy  Egypt alone since  France   had  not  participated    In the defeating  the Urabist   revolt
The Urabist  movement  was almost  successful  but it was finally crushed  by British  military might. The British had a very strong navy and well trained  soldiers.  Urabist forces couldn't challenge  the superior  military  machines  of the British forces. The British determination  to protect their interests  in Suez Canal couldn't  let the Urabist  Movement  succeed.


Ismail has been held responsible  for Egyptian  loss of independence  in whatever  case. Like
Mohammed   Said, he also believed  that Westernisation   meant  modernisation.   It was this misconception  that influenced  his thinking  policies  to the- extent  that he was always  trying to do whatever  he had seen in Europe  or what his European  advisers  told him. He mostly aimed   at  doing   things   on  a  too  large   scale  basis  without   considering    the  costs  and affordability  of Egypt.
His  foreign   policy   was  also  characterised     by  strong   expensive,    expansionism    and aggressi ve extension  of his rule especially  to Sudan and  Ethiopia.  This was done  in a bid to  expand   his  territory   and  satisfy   his  long  cherished  .ambition   of  creating   a  greater Egypt Empire.  Ismail  managed  to succeed  and in  1865 he acquired  port  Masawa  and port Saukin  on the Red  Sea from the control  of Turkey.  This  was one of his first foreign achievements
He also,  like  other  European  explorers,   tried  to find  the source  of River  Nile  in a long distance  along  the Nile Valley.  In  18605 and  1870s, Ismail  employed  European  explorers on heavy  pay to fund the source  of River  Nile.  He, for example,  set off Samuel  Baker  in
1869  at pay  of  100,000  pounds  per  year  to explore  the  source  of the  Nile.  He  built  a railway  line around Nile cataracts  and to divert the ivory trade that was going eastwards  to Zanzibar.  In 1873, he again signed  an exploration  document  to find the Source of the Nile with Charles  Gordon
For efficient  administration  in Sudan, Ismail employed  foreigners  like Charles  Gordon and Sir Samuel  Baker  so as to execute  his policies  in an organised  way. Nevertheless,   these Christian  administrators   were not welcomed  by Muslims  in Sudan. They were regarded  as infidels  or non-believers   by the Sudanese .. However,  they were. being credited   for having stopped slave    trade  activities  in-Sudan  although  they tailed  to administer  Sudan properly. The  stopping  of  Slave trade  that was  the main  source  of income  to the  Sudanese  chiefs was the beginning  of the hatred of the Turko-Egyptian   administration.
Another  component   of his foreign  policy  was his attempt  to annex  Ethiopia  and Eritrea during  the time  of John IV although  he was systematically   defeated.  The Egyptian  forces were  sent  to  conquer   Ethiopia   but  they  were  badly  checked   in Eritrea  that  led  to  the abortion  of the plans  to add Ethiopia  to Egypt.  He also  spent  money  and time  trying  to conquer  Kisamayu  and Somaliland  but failed.
Nevertheless   Ismail succeeded  in acquiring  full independence  of Egypt from Turkish  rule. Unlike  his  predecessor,   Mohammed   Ali,  Ismail  never  used  force  but bribes  in form  of silver, money  and Gold to the Sultan of Turkey  although  shortly was taken over by British colonisers  in 1882. As a sign of greater  autonomy,  Ismail was given a chance  to carry out commercial   agreements   with  independent   countries  like Britain,  France  and  Spain  after securing  Egyptian  independence  from Turkey as well as carrying  out full administration  of Egypt.
While  Ismail  was  doing  these  internal  and  external  activities   for  Egyptians,   he lacked sufficient   financial  source,  planning   and  proper  control.  He  was  tricked  by  European money   lenders   and  their  agents  who  had  come  to  Egypt  in  large  numbers.   He  also employed   large  numbers    of  Europeans    who  were   heavily   paid   in  the  schemes   of westernisation  of Egypt and Sudan.
Many  of these were  employed  as experts  in posts and telecommunications,    in education, banking  sector,  engineering,   army  and administration.   He employed  many  Europeans  as his  personal   advisors   and  they  "advised"   him  how  to borrow   a  lot  of  money   from European  money  lenders  who were ready to give it out at high interest  rates that he never bothered to negotiate upon.
Apart from spending  so much to modernise  Egypt, Ismail was also extravagant  and he was luxurious  ruler' in that his palace  was a center of comfort  and enjoyment  with his relatives, friends and European  advisers.  He spent a lot of money on personal  and prestigious  affairs like  1,000,000  pounds  at the  opening  ceremony   of  Suez  Canal  in  1869.  He also  built luxurious  hotel  to host  Europeans   in Egypt  and  also  spent  so much  in maintaining   his concubines.
As if that was not enough,  Ismail undertook  schemes  to promote  the Egyptian government abroad. He spent large sums of money to employ  European  explorers  to find the source of River Nile.  He also  employed  costly  expeditions  to defeat  Eritrea,  Ethiopia  and Somalia that  was  not  successful.   His  attack  on Ethiopia  was  in the  regime  of John  IV  10   1875 where he was defeated  seriously.
By  l875,  the financial  position  of Egypt  was desperate  because  of a lot of extravagancy and  lack  of proper  control  of  borrowed  money.  Ismail  didn't   pay  back  the  debts  after spending   these  loans  on  non-profit   making  ventures   and  neither   could  he  afford  the interest  rate required  on  these  debts.  The  European   lenders  were  unwilling  to add  him more money and yet his schemes  of development  were far from completion.
His only alternative  was to raise money by selling Egyptian  shares  in Suez Canal. In 1875, the Egyptian  government  achieved  its long desire  of controlling  the whole  of Suez Canal by buying  it at only 4,000,000  pounds  from Ismail.  Britain  therefore  became  the largest shareholder  of the  international   Suez Canal  company,  a position  that enabled  Britain  to guard the short cut to its colony India for commercial  purposes.
After   1875, Europeans   were  ready  to  intervene   in  Egypt  and  the  weakness   of Ismail provided  them a clear  excuse  for intervention  especially  on issues  of their debts  and the company  programs.  Egyptian  independence  was now at a total threat.  The debts and their interests were too much to be paid by Egypt because her financial  position was worse than ever. The 4,000,000  from the sale of Suez Canal never helped him.
In 1878, an Anglo-French  commission  made up of one French and one British was formed and  imposed   on  Khedive   Ismail.   This   commission    was  charged   with  financial   re-organisation  to enable her pay back European  debts. This was the beginning  of the joint  of
Anglo-French  control  of Egyptian  government.
All  available   revenue-generating     activities   were  put  under  their  supervision.   Taxation became compulsory  to all classes  of people  in Egypt. The- various  expenditures  at Ismail's palace were reduced.  All state privileges  were cut off and the government  expenditure  was greatly  controlled  in attempt  to raise money to pay back the old debt. This made the civil servants  to go without  allowances,   salaries  were  reduced  and natives  began  complaining about  the foreigners'   squeeze  of their privileges  and income  hence  laying  a foundation of Urabist revolt of 1880-81.
Ismail  himself  didn't   like the way he was being  restricted  by this commission   in his own country.  In 1879 he clashed  with  these  commissioners   who  decided  to dismiss  him  and replace  him with  his son Mohammad   Tewfiq  who  was  a puppet  ruler  of the Europeans. The commission  after doing these replacements  notified  the sultan  of Turkey who was the overall king of Egypt at the time.