Monday, 26 September 2016

Documents required before getting the status of a company


1. Memorandum of Associations
i. N ame of business.
ii. Objectives.
iii. Registered address.
iv. Authorized share capital (the maximum amount of capital a
business is allowed to raise)
v. List of directors.
2. Articles of Association
i. Internal management of the company.
ii. Rights and responsibilities of Directors and Shareholders.
iii. Appointment of legal advisors and auditors.
iv. Quorum of Annual General Meeting.
v. Profit sharing.
3. Certificate of incorporation
1. certificate issued to business to act as a limited company

Capital of Public Limited Company
1. Shares
Are issued by public limited company to general pubic. Holder of share
becomes owner of the business.
2. Debenture
Are issued by public limited company to general pubic. Holder of
debenture becomes the lender to the business

Advantages: and Disadvantages:of Sole Trader

Sole Trader
Owner: One, with or without assistance of employs.
Capital: Limited and provided by loans or personal savings.
Liability: Unlimited.
Status: No legal entity.
Scale of operation: Very small.
Registration: No legal formalities.
Tax Burdon: Low.
Examples: Food stall, laundry and tailor.
Advantages:
1. Simple formation.
2. Easy management.
3. Owner is his own boss.
4. All profit is retained by the owner.
5. Low taxes.
6. Labour intensive.

Disadvantages:
1. Unlimited liability.
2. Uncertain life.
3. Resourcefully not very strong.
4. All burden of management is on the owner.

Consumers Rights


1. To get right quantity and quality against the price paid.
2. Not to be charged extra.
3. Should be given goods in proper measurement.
4. There should be no ad ulteration.
5. Should no get expired items.
6. Should no get unhygie nic items.
7. Should not be treated rudely.
8. Should not get items with haram ingredients.
9. Seller should not mak e misleading statements during time of sellin g.
10. Should be given due after sale services

Reasons for Consumer Protection


1. Unfair trading practice s of businessman.
2. Inability of consumers to asses claims of advertisers.
3. Ignorance of consumers that products may endanger their health or life.
4. Safeguarding the religious beliefs of consumers.
5. Ignorance of customers of their rights

Sunday, 25 September 2016

Comparison between Bank Loan and Leasing


Bank Loan Leasing
1. Cheaper source of finance Expensive source of finance
2. Collateral security is involved Collateral security is not involved
3. Good is actually sold Good remains in the owner ship of the seller
4. In case of payment defaults bank can not I case of payment defaults seller can repossess
repossess the good the good
5. Suitable for goods with no second hand Suitable for goods with good second hand value

Hire Purchase


• A leasing agreement in which the lessor lets the lessee use an asset for a certain time
period (less that the life of the asset) upon a certain installment (rental) with an
option to purchase the asset by paying the amount or return the good to lessor, after
the lease period.
• Suitable for asset with good resale value.
• The lessor will own the asset till the last installment has been paid and the total
value of the asset is recovered.

Over Draft


• A short term facility offered by the bank to the its customers where the borrower can
over draft (withdraw money more than their balance) their accounts maintained with
the banks.
• Available only for current accounts.
• Used by businesses to manage cash flow problems.

Credit Cards


• A plastic card with a magnetic tape or with a micro
chip on it issued by commercial banks to their credit
worthy customers on request.
• These can be used for making payment at
selected retailers or for drawing cash from
selected ATMs upto a certain limit.
• Features:
1. Plastic Card.
2. Magnetic tape.
3. Name of card holder.
4. Card number.
5. Validity date.
• Advantages:
Advantages to Card Holder:
1. Increases purchasing power.
2. Minimum cash handling.
3. Obtain cash at ATM.
4. Can be cancelled when stolen.
5. Postponement of payment.
Advantages to Bank:
1. Interest from card holder.
2. Commission from retailer.
Advantages to Retailers:
1. More sales.
2. Competitive edge.
3. Minimum cash handling.
• Disadvantages:
Disadvantages to Card Holders:
1. Limited acceptability.
2. Interest is charged.
3. Irrational buying.
4. Every one cannot have this facility.
5. Can be misused.
Disadvantage to Bank:
1. Recovery of money from defaulters.
Disadvantages to Retailer:
1. Commission and rental to be paid to the bank.
2. Problem of limited cash.

Matters discussed in agreement


• Details about the buyer and seller.
• Details of the asset to be bought/sold.
• Amount of finance.
• Repayment period.
• Monthly instalment.
• Interest rate charged.
• Collateral security involved.
• Rights and responsibilities of both parties.

Reasons for giving Credit


1. To gain competitive edge.
2. To earn additional money.
3. To sell a very expensive items.
4. When the product sales is on decline

Credit Note


Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: To acknowledge receipt of faulty items returned by the buyer. To reduce amount
receivable from the buyer.

Differences between Invoice and Statement of Account


Invoice Statement of Account
1. Financial claim against one single supply of goods and Summary of transactions.
services.
2. Carries certain date. Related to certain time period.
3. No information about payments received or made. Do contain such information.
4. Does not tell the outstanding balance. Do tell.
5. Carries information about purchases, delivery note No such information.
and terms of sale.

Common Features in Documents


1. Made on official paper (which include Brand name, Brand mark and contact details
(e.t.c.).
2. Date of issuance is written.
3. Reference number of the document in response of which document is issued.
4. Contact details.
5. Title of document.
6. All documents must be signed by a competent authority from the issuer side.
Letter of Enquiry
Issued by: Buyer
Issued to: Seller
Purpose: To enquire about price, specifications, availability and terms of payment of goods.
Quotation
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: Issued in response of Letter of Enquiry.
Contains:
a) The prices of goods.
b) Terms of supply and discounts.
c) Costs of carriage of the goods.
d) Amount of time needed for delivery.
Catalogue
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: Substitution to the quotation. Nicely printed containing the specifications, pictures
of goods, contact and terms and conditions.
Price list
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: Send with the catalogue, it contains the prices of goods mentioned on the
catalogue.
www.studyguide.pk
P.Suthaharan : Commerce – G.C.E (Ordinary Level) 22
Order
Issued by: Buyer
Issued to: Seller
Purpose: Issued to place an order for goods.
Contains:
a) Name and addresses of the two parties.
b) Description of each items.
c) Delivery date required.
d) The address to which the consignment is to be sent.
Delivery note
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: Sent to inform buyer of delivery of goods, stating the quantity, types of goods and order
number and registration number of the truck. It is usually sent with the goods so that buyer can check
the goods delivered. Delivery note is prepared in triplicate one retained by seller after getting truck
driver signed, second retained by truck driver after getting signed by buyer upon delivery, third copy
is retained by the buyer.
Invoice
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: To claim the amount of goods supplied, stating also the type, quantity, price and
terms of payment.
Statement of Account
Issued by: Seller
Issued to: Buyer
Purpose: To inform buyer of outstanding recoverable balance from him at the end of every
month.
It informs the transactions between the buyer and seller To

Documents in Home Trade


Why Documents are needed?
1. For better internal control of the business.
2. To record business transactions.
3. For future references.
4. Legal Requirements.
5. To minimize misunderstandings between buyer and seller

Instances where wholesalers are still involved


1. Standardized items.
2. Seasonal production (farm products).
3. Unbranded items (farm products).
4. Large markets.
5. Producers do not have resources.
6. Imports and exports.

Instances where wholesalers are eliminated


1. High value items (producers directly to customers).
2. Branded items.
3. Products are highly technical (training secrets).
4. Producers are resourcefully strong (Producers own retail outlets).
5. Products are very perishable (for example bakery).
6. Customized items.
7. Small market

The role of wholesaler is on decline


Reasons
1. Large scale retailers.
2. Branded items advertized and pre packed by producers.
3. Banks provide easy loans and thus Large scale retailers.
4. Need of one stop shopping.
5. Transportation and inventory management has become easy

Importance of Whole Scale Retailers in Distribution channel


To Producer
1. Producers are relieved of the risks.
2. Producers are relieved of storage of products.
3. By providing prompt cash, cash flow problem is reduced.
4. Due to purchase in bulk, production line are cleared.
5. Transportation is provided by wholesalers.
6. Feed back of market.
To Retailers
1. Variety is provided from different producers.
2. Wholesaler provide credit.
3. Wholesaler provide transportation.
4. Educate SSR on new products, shop layout and advertising.
5. Pack and grade before selling to SSR.
6. Sell in small quantities.
7. Warehousing is done by wholesaler.
To End Customer
1. Variety.
2. Convenience (products are available to SSR through wholesaler).
3. Competitive rates.
4. Continuous availability of products.
5. Price fluctuations are minimized.
6. Customer demand is met.

Dissimilarities of Large Scale Retailers and Wholesalers

Dissimilarities
Large Scale Retailers Wholesalers
1. Sell to end customer. Sells to SSR.
2. Can sell in smaller quantities. Sell only in large quantities.
3. Sell on cash. Sell on credit.
4. Normally do not provide home delivery. Normally provide transportation to SSR.
5. Impersonalized services. Provide support to SSR.
6. Can perform branding and advertisement. Do not perform branding but can advertise.
SSR= Small Scale Retailers

Comparison of Large Scale Retailers and Wholesalers Similarities


1. Purchase in bulk.
2. Purchases directly from the producer.
3. Purchase in cash.
4. Bulk breaking.
5. Risk bearing.
6. Large capital.
7. Specialist staff.
8. Invest in fixed assets.
9. Transportation from producer to warehouse.
10. Warehousing.
11. Link between customer and producer.
12. Work as private and public limited companies

Functions of whole sale trade

Functions
1. Buys in bulk from different producers.
2. Looking for a good source of supply.
3. Bears the risk, if products are damaged, spoilt or stolen.
4. Warehousing.
5. Transportation from the producer to warehouse and from warehouse to the retailer.
6. Bulk breaking.
7. Purchasing in cash from producer.
8. Selling on credit to the customer.
9. Providing technical help to small scale retailers.
10. Maintaining stability in price.

Electronic Point of Sale (EPOS) Electronic Funds Transfer System (EFTS)


EPOS or EFTS refers to the computer-based systems used to perform financial transactions
electronically.
Advantages
To Retailers
1. Accuracy in billing.
2. Minimum cash handling in case of EFTS.
3. Increased sales in case of EFTS.
4. Security of cash.
To Customers
1. Purchasing power increases.
2. Minimum cash handling.
3. Get itemized bill.
Disadvantages
To Retailers
1. More capital.
2. Skilled labor required.
3. In case of EFTS, retailer has to pay bank charges.
To Customers
1. Irrational buying.

Disadvantages of Franchisee

Disadvantages
To Franchisor
1. Any bad business practice of franchisee can damage franchisor’s image.
2. Responsibilities of training and educating franchisee.
To Franchisee
1. Heavy amount is to be paid to franchisors as franchising fee.
2. Loss of some business controls.
3. Agreement is valid upto certain period.
4. No separate identification of franchisee.
5. Franchising is not determinant of success.
To Customers
1. Limited choice of product.

Advantages of Franchising

Franchising
• A successful business (franchiser) lets another business (franchisee) use its name
under an agreement.
• All franchises are decorated in the same style.
Advantages
To Franchisor
1. Name is spread without much investment.
2. Gets franchising fee from the franchisee.
3. Has right to control certain activities of franchisee.
To Franchisee
1. Training by the franchisor.
2. Less advertisement is required.
To Customers
1. Convenience, easily located.
2. Guarantee of quality.

Barcodes


Advantages
To Retailers
1. Accurate billing.
2. Quick billing.
3. Better business control.
4. Integrated software can be used.
5. Labour cost is saved through automatic billing.
6. Security against shop lifting.
To Customers
1. Accuracy in bills. Not charged extra.
2. Quick billing.
Disadvantages
To Retailers
1. High capital cost.
2. Skilled labor required.
3. Computer software can malfunction.
To Customers
1. Impersonalized shopping.
2. Software malfunction.

Shopping Complex • One multi-storey building, with many different shops, each belonging to different

Shopping Complex
• One multi-storey building, with many different shops, each belonging to different
owners.
• Wide range of goods and services are available.
Advantages
To Retailers
1. Common platform for achieving common goal.
2. Minimum expense on advertising.
3. Labour is available.
To Customers
1. Variety.
2. Other services like, ATM and post office are there.
3. One stop shopping.
4. Located in main commercial area.
Disadvantages
To Retailers
1. High rents.
2. High competition.
3. Low profit margin.
To Customers
1. Traffic, inconvenience.
2. Pollution.
3. Not located close to homes.

After Sale Service

After Sale Service
• All the services provided by the retailer, manufacturer, or the agent to support
customers after the sale has been made.
• After sale services include: Installation, training, repairing and warranty.
• Warranty is provided by the produced as a guarantee of quality of a product.
• Warranty is valid within a specific period of usage or specific period after purchase.
• In warranty items with faulty performance will be repaired or replaced free of charge
within warranty period.
Advantages
To Retailers
1. Better image.
2. More revenue with more sales.
To Customers
1. Support.
2. Spare parts are available.
3. Warranty.
Disadvantages
To Retailers
1. Capital requirement.
2. Management problems.
3. Parts repaired in warranty are a loss to the business.
To Customers
1. Warranty is added to the cost from customers.
2. Warranty is available only for limiter period

Disadvantages of branding


To Retailers
1. Brands needs to be advertise and advertisement can be burden on resources.
2. Sometimes branding increases competition and competition puts pressure on
firms profit.
3. Imitation brands reduce profit.
To Customers
1. Customers get confused as what brand to buy.
2. Cost of packing an advertisement is added to the price of product.
3. Customer may be misled by the advertisement of a certain brand.
4. Imitation brands.

Self Service


• Products are displayed on open shelves.
• Customers have to select them put them into trolley, take it to cash counter,
make payment and arrange for their transportation.
• Generally used in large scale retailing especially supermarkets.
Advantages
To Retailers
1. Lesser requirement of shop staff.
2. More sales in given time.
3. More sales due to impulse buying. More turnover.
4. Attraction to the customers.
To Customers
1. Shopping can be done in free environment.
2. Freedom of choice.
3. Quicker shopping.
4. Low price.
Disadvantages
To Retailers
1. More capital required (for space, shelves and variety).
2. Shop lifting.
3. Security expenses increases.
To Customers
1. Impersonalized way of sales.
2. Impulse buying.
3. No delivery is provid

branding advantages

Advantages
To Retailers
1. Products can be differentiated.
2. Market share can be created.
3. Adds value to the product.
4. Assists in handling of products.
5. Information about the product can be written.
6. Attracts customers.
7. Some packing can be reused.
8. Advertisement can be done.
9. Easy to handle. (Arrangement in self service retailing)
To Customers
1. Brand assures uniform quality.
2. With packing awareness is created.
3. Customer is well informed about the product by advertisement.
4. Some wrappers can be reused.
5. Shopping has become easier.

what is Branding and Packing


• Branding means the selling of goods under the trade mark or brand name of
manufacturer.
• Branding is done to differentiate products from competition.
• Brand Name= Name and Brand Mark= Symbol.
• Packing is the wrapper of product done to provide convenience to customers.
• Branding is only possible if packing is done.

Points to be remembered before starting retail business


• Knowledge about retailing.
• Knowledge about the industry.
• Knowledge about prevailing law.
• Capital requirement.
• Location
Aggressive: Locating with the competition.
Defensive: locating away from competition.
• Good source of supply.

How Retailers can improve their Profits.


1. By improving the quality of products.
2. By offering variety.
3. By offering competitive prices.
4. By properly advertizing and giving incentives.
5. By improving shop layout.
6. By changing location.
7. By controlling costs of routine operation.

Why Small Sale Retailers are still surviving

Why Small Sale Retailers are still surviving
1. Nearness to the customers (saves travel costs and time).
2. Personal services.
3. Credit facility.
4. Opening hours (open early in morning and closed late at night).
5. Some shoppers do not like change so they go to the small shop because they
have always done.
6. Free home delivery.

Why Small Scale Retailers are dependant on wholesalers


• Small scale retailers purchase in smaller quantities.
• They need variety (different brands).
• Needs credit.
• Transport to the shop is provided by the wholesaler.
• Wholesaler advices small scale retailers on different selling issues.
• Wholesaler advices small scale retailers on shop layouts.

Disadvantages of Large Scale Retailers


To Business
1. High capital requirement.
2. High fixed cost (large expenses).
3. Greater risks attached (stock damage).
4. Management problems.
5. Business has to give incentives to customers which can be a burden on the business.
6. Business has to allocate certain area for non-productive activity (play area,
parking lot).
7. Normally self service is offered and there are chances of shop lifting.
8. Mail order business can expect refund claims which is loss to the business.
www.studyguide.pk
P.Suthaharan : Commerce – G.C.E (Ordinary Level) 10
To Customers
1. Not conveniently located.
2. All these are located in main commercial area their can be traffic,
congestion and parking problems.
3. Customers get standardized items.
4. Impersonalized services.
5. Self service sometimes leads to impulse buying and irrational buying.
6. Do not provide home delivery.
7. Don not provide credit facility.

Advantages of Large Scale Retailers


To Business
1. High Rate of Turnover-Economy of scale can be achieved.
2. Business can employ specialist staff – Efficient business.
3. Low competition due to high capital requirement.
4. Business can save on transportation.
5. They will get discounts because they purchase in bulk.
6. Have state of art warehousing techniques.
To Customers
1. Variety is available
2. Generally customers can get low rates.
3. Benefit of one stop shopping.
4. Extra facilities like ATM and post office.
5. Since items are displayed openly on shelves, customers have freedom of choice.
6. Mail order business sell under money back guarantee.
7. Generally items of good repute and quality is sold.
8. Customers can enjoy arm chair shopping via mail order.

Types of Large Scale Retailers

Types of Large Scale Retailers
Multiple Shops
• Many similar looking outlets distributed all over the country under the same head.
• Same product line is sold through all the shops.
• Losses in one store may be offset by profits in another.
• Stock is bought centrally.
• Stock can be moved between branches.
• Most operate as public limited companies.
• Goods are usually on open display.
• Prices are clearly marked.
Department Store
• Many departments or specialist shops in one building, located in the centre of the
city.
• Each department specializes in particular line of goods.
• Main aim is to provide complete range of goods under one roof.
• Operates as limited companies.
• Prices are clearly marked.
Variety chain store
• Contains features of both multiple shops and department store.
• Offers variety of goods, with similar looking outlets spread all over the country.
• Sells by self-service, goods openly displayed and prices clearly marked.
Super market
• Big department store, specialized in selling kitchen related and daily
household goods.
• Offers self-service.
• High Rate of turnover.
Hyper Market
• Are very large supermarket.
• Sited outsides large towns.
• Offers low prices, as they buy in bulk.
• Suitable for those who want to buy in bulk and have own transport.
Mail order business
• Run by manufacturers or the owners of departmental stores.
• Only one office and a large warehouse is required.
• Business will advertize extensively in newspapers.
• They have printed catalogue and price lists.
Catalogue contains diagram, specifications and reference number of goods
available. And telephone, fax number, email address and postal address of the
company. Price lists contains the prices of goods mentioned in catalogue against
its reference number.

Large Scale Retailers


1. Purchase from the producer in bulk.
2. Normally work on the basis of public or private limited companies.
3. Involve a lot of capital.
4. Invest heavily in the fixed assets.
5. Employ specialist staff.
6. Arrange transportation from the producer.
7. Pay cash to the producer at the time of purchase.
8. Sell on cash to end customers (i.e. no credit is offered).
9. Provide impersonalized services to the customers.
10. Do not provide home delivery.

Functions of Retailer

Functions of Retailer
1. Always looking for good source of supply.
2. Further bulk breaking, and selling in smaller quantities.
3. Offers variety of goods from different producers.
4. They sell to the end customer.
5. Might be involved in branding and packing.
6. Might provide home delivery (small scale retailers).
7. Might provide informal credit to trustworthy customers (small scale retailers).
8. Provides after sale services to the customers.
9. Provides information to the customers about the new products and schemes.
10. Inform the wholesaler or producer about the reaction of market towards a certain
product.
11. Deals with complaints from customers.
12. Warehousing.
13. Display products to the customers

Factors affecting choice of Channel of Distributions


1. Producer capabilities
Can producer open his own retail outlets?
2. Producer philosophy
Exclusive distribution (distribution at certain shops)
Extensive distribution (distribution at every shop)
3. Type of customer
Own use: from retailer
Business use: from producer
www.studyguide.pk
P.Suthaharan : Commerce – G.C.E (Ordinary Level) 7
4. Size of order
Small: from retailer
Large: from producer
5. Nature of product
Perishable: small channel
Long shelf life: long channel
6. Value of product
Expensive: small channel
Cheap: long channel
7. Size of market
Small: small channel
Large: long channel
8. Nature of market
Home or International

Different Channels of Distribution

Different Channels of Distribution
1. Producer to the consumer
Expensive, technical, perishable, exclusively made for one customer.
2. Producer to retailer to consumer
Large scale retailer, producer’s own outlet, suitable for perishable items for example
bakery.
3. Producer to wholesaler to retailer to consumer
Standardized, consumer items, low value and high shelf life, suitable when demand
of products are seasonal or the production is seasonal.
4. Producer to agent to wholesaler to retailer to consumer
Only incase of international trade. Overseas producer appoints a agent in home
market. For example imported cars and cosmetics

Dissimilarities between Home Trade and Foreign Trade

Dissimilarities between Home Trade and Foreign Trade
Home Trade Foreign Trade
1. Done within national boundaries. Done across the globe.
2. Same currency is involved. Different currencies are involved.
3. Same units of measurements. Different units of measurement.
4. Same government policies. Different government policies.
5. No taxes are involved. Import/Export taxes are involved.
6. Simple Documents. Complex Documents.
7. Same culture and language Different culture and languages.
8. Mode of Payment is cash, cheque etc. Mode of payment is online transfer, bill of
exchange etc

Comparison of Home Trade and Foreign Trade

Comparison of Home Trade and Foreign Trade
Similarities between Home Trade and Foreign Trade
1. Buying and selling of goods for making profit.
2. Serve mankind by satisfying needs and wants.
3. Requires aids to trade.
4. Require surplus to be created.
5. Work on the principle of specialization

Aids to Trade Services which are required to facilitate trade.

Aids to Trade
Services which are required to facilitate trade.
Aids to Trade Function
1. Banking Provides Finance and Services.
2. Transport Without means of transportation it is impossible to trade.
3. Communication To transmit and receive information quickly.
4. Insurance Absorbs some of the risks in production and trade.
5. Warehousing Provides storage facilities.
6. Advertisement Inform customers about products

How are manufacturing and tertiary activities inter-related?


• Manufacturing is concerned with producing goods from raw materials, tertiary activities
are concerned with the distribution of finished goods from the factory to the final
consumer.
• Unless there were tertiary activities finished goods would not be sold because there would
not be any advertising, no finance to build factories, no storage facility, no transport to
the retailer/wholesaler and no communication between buyer and seller.
• Manufacturing would not be able to take place as goods would be stockpiled and so it is
dependent on tertiary activities to get the goods to the right person at the right time.
• As manufacturing becomes more specialized, the manufacturer will become more
dependent on others to provide tertiary services.
www.studyguide.pk
P.Suthaharan : Commerce – G.C.E (Ordinary Level) 5
• The manufacturer may set up some of the tertiary activities himself – advertise, have
warehouses, have his own transport he may also have his own retail outlet, e.g. factory shop
but usually he sells to wholesaler or retailer.
• Tertiary activities are also concerned with trading in services, advertising and
communicating these services and so is not entirely inter-related with manufacturing.
• The manufacturer will need to insure the factory/its contents against risk, e.g. public liability,
employer’s liability

Branches of Production


Primary Production
• First Stage of production.
• Primary production is obtaining raw materials or food from nature.
• Includes Extractive Industries for example mining, quarrying.
• Includes Genetic Industries for example farming, forestry and fishing.
• Products are in unusable state, so they are moved to secondary stage of production.
Secondary Production
• Second Stage of Production.
• Secondary production is making goods from raw materials.
• Includes Manufacturing, Processing and Constructing.
• Products are ready to use, but are at wrong place, so moved at tertiary stage.
Tertiary Production
• Third (last) Stage of Production.
• It assists industry to function, by providing commercial services and direct personal
services.

Forms of Specialization


Specialization at country level occurs when a certain country devotes itself mainly to
produce certain products which it exports to other countries.
Specialization at region level occurs when a particular region in a country devotes its self in
producing certain types of products, which is used by all the country.
Specialization at town level occurs when a particular city in a country devotes its self in
producing certain types of products, which is used by all the country.
Specialization at firm level occurs when a firm is divided into departments and within
departments individual workers have their own specialized duty.

Disadvantages of Specialization

Disadvantages of Specialization
• Work becomes boring.
• Interdependency increases.
• Decline in craftsmanship.
• Machinery replaces labor.
• Standardized output, choice of customers decreases.
• Demotivated staff.

Advantages of Specialization

Specialization/Division of Labour
Specialization or Division of Labour is breaking down of a productive activity into simpler
tasks so that a person specialist in that task can perform it.

Advantages of Specialization
• Concentration on work increases.
• Increased out put per worker.
• Mechanization can occur.
• Economy of scale can be achieved (low average cost of product).
• Less time consuming.
• Better quality of products.
• Mass production.
• Saving of tools and equipment.

Thursday, 22 September 2016

free downloads of high school mathematice notes O and A level english notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Wakisha Mock Maths 1 2016

 Mount Of Olives Maths 2 Internal Mock 2016

 Mt Of Olives S4 - Maths 1 

 Mt Of Olives S4 - Maths 1

  Mt Of Olives S6 Internal Mock Maths Paper 1 

  Kalussa Mock S6 Math 2 

 Ghs S6 Mock Maths 1 2016 

 Ghs S6 Mock Maths 2 2016 Guide

 Greenhill - S6 Mock Maths 1 2016 Guide

 Greenhill - S6 Mock Maths 2 2016 With Guide

 Macadita S4 Mock Maths 2 2016 

 Macadita S4 Maths 1 2016 

  Macadita S6 Maths 1 2016 

 Ghs Mock Maths 1 Set 4 

 Ghs Mock Maths 1 With Guide

 Ndejje S6 Mock Maths 2 

  Shack S4 Premock Maths 2 

 Shack S6 Premock Math 2 2016 

free downloads of high school learn O and A level english notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Senior four Holiday work-German 

 Senior three Holiday work-German

 Senior Two German Holiday work 

 Senior Five German Holiday Work 

Senior three German Holiday work

  Senior one German Holiday work

 S.6 Germany Holidaywork 

  S.4 Germany Holidaywork

  S.3 Germany Holidaywork 

  S 1 German holiday work august

  S.2 Germany holiday work 

 S.1 Germany holidaywork 

 S6 German Holiday work term 2

 S4 German Holiday work term




  S3 German Holiday work term


 S1 German Holiday work term

 S2 German Holiday work term 2

 Senior Three German Holiday

 Senior One German Holiday

 Senior Two German Holiday 

 Senior five Holiday work-German

free downloads of high school O and A level chemistry notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

S2 Chemistry guide 

 S.4 CHEMISTRY PAPER ONE MOCK

 S.4 CHEMISTRY PAPER TWO MOCK 

 S1 EOT3 chemistry guide 

 S.1 Term 1 Chemistry Holiday work

 holiday work s.2 

 holiday work s.4 

 S.2 Chemistry Term 2,

 S.5 Chemistry Holiday Work

 S.3 Chemistry Holidaywork

  S.2 Chemistry holidaywork 

 S.I Chemistry Holiday work

 S. 3 Chemistry Holiday Work Term II

 S.2 Chemistry Term II 2015 holiday work

  S.1 Chemistry Term II 2015 holiday work

 S.2 ENTRY CHEMISTRY HOLIDAY WORK

 S.4 ENTRY CHEMISTRY HOLIDAY WORK 

 S.1 HOLIDAY WORK CHEMISTRY.

free downloads of high school notes for O and A level biology notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

S.6 Biology paper two revision holiday work

  S.6 bio holiday work.Hormonal control

S.6 Biology paper one revision holiday 

 S.5 bio holiday work Meiosis 

 S.4 Biology holiday work

  S.1 Biology holiday work

 S.2 Biology holiday work

 S.3 Locomotion notes

Growth and Development

  Ecology Notes S3 term

 S2 Biology Exercise 

 S3 Biology Exercise

 S4 Biology Exercise

 marking guide S4 Ecology

 SENIOR THREE BIOLOGY NOTES 

 S4 Biology S4 Internal MOCK 2016

  UACE Biology Mocks Paper 2 2016

 553 Biology sylabus 2006 - 2010

Wednesday, 21 September 2016

free downloads of O and A level ict and computer science notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Senior 2 computer studies holiday work 

  Computer studies test for S3 and s4

 › S3 Word Processing Exercise

 S4 PowerPoing Student Guide Handout 

 Getting Started with Databases

 Evolution and Generation of computers 

  ICT PAPER 1 FOR SENIOR 6 
 
 SENIOR 1 & 2 COMPUTER TEST 

  SENIOR 4 COMPUTER STUDIES TEST

 Computer Networks for S4 computer studies class 

 elementary Programming 

 SENIOR ONE COMPUTER HOLIDAY WORK

 Senior 2 Computer Holiday Assessment

  ICT for Hsc

 gramming concepts using C language

 S6 Subsidiary Ict 850 - Paper 2 Set 01 

 S5 Ict Paper 2 Holiday Work


free downloads of O and A level Economics content notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Senior Six Economics Holiday Work 

 Economics for Senior Five/Six 

 SENIOR 6 ECONOMICS PAPER 2 

 SENIOR 5 ECONOMICS PAPER 

 SENIOR 6 ECONOMICS PAPER 1

 S 6. Economics paper 1 holiday work 

 s 6 Economics Paper 2 Holiday work

Introductory economics 

Economics 1 EOT2013 

 Economics 1 Guide Eot 2013 

  Economics 2 EOT3

  Economics 2 guide EOT 3 

  Economics work for S6 

 S.6 Term I 2013 Holiday work

 Economics Holiday Test 1 

 Economics Holiday Test 2 

 Economics Holiday Test 3

 Economics Holiday Test 4

 Economics Exercise 

 Senior five Economics Holiday work-marking guide

 SENIOR SIX ECONOMICS TEST

 SENIOR FIVE ECONOMICS TEST

 Senior five Economics Holiday work 



free downloads of O and A level Agriculture content notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Senior one Agriculture Holiday 

 S.3 Agriculture Term 2, 2014 Holiday work 2

S.1 Agriculture Term 2, 2014 Holiday work 

S.3 Agriculture Term 2, 2014 Holiday work

 Holiday work 

 Holiday work solanacea 

 Soil Erosion 

 More holiday work

 S.2Amaryllidacae oralliaceae 

 S2 Soil and water conservation

 Agriculture S4 holiday work 

 S4 AGRICULTURE Holiday work

 S2 AGRICULTURE Holiday work 

  Senior one Agriculture Holiday Work 

 Senior three Agriculture Holiday work

 Senior one Agriculture Holiday Work

 Senior two agriculture Holiday work 

 Senior one Agriculture Holiday Research work

  Senior three Agriculture Holiday work

 Senior three Agriculture Holiday Research work 

 S 4 Agriculture 

 Agriculture

 S 4 Agriculture

 SENIOR FOUR AGRICULTURE HOLIDAY WORK MAY

  SENIOR THREE AGRICULTURE HOLIDAY TEST

free downloads of O and A level Additional Maths content notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint.

Senior Four Additional Mathematics Holiday Work

 MOCK 

 PAPER 1 ADD MATHS S4 

 S.4ADDMATH

  S.6 PHYSICS PAPER 1 HOLIDAY WORK 

 S.2 Holiday package 

  S5 French Literature

 S4 Additional Mathematics

  S.4 ADD Mathematics 

 S4 ADD Maths 

 Holiday Work

free downloads of O and A level Commerce content notes,exams,exercises and powerpoint

S3 Holiday work term 2 2014

  S4 Holiday work term 2 2014

 S.3 C0MMERCE TERM 1 2014 HOLIDAY WORK 

 S.3 Notes on International Trade 

  S.3 commerce holiday work, term 1:2014

 S.4 commerce holiday work, term 1,2014

 S.4 COMMERCE MOCK EXAMINATION

  S.4 C.R.E MOCK EXAMINATION 

 Senior four commerce-Holiday work 

 commerce holiday work

  S4 Commerce

Thursday, 15 September 2016

GEOGRAPHY paper 1&2 1998

PAPER 1
PART I
1. Population distribution in East Africa mostly influenced by
A. Soils
B. Relief
C. Climate
D. Vegetation
2. Which of the following mountains has a glacier?
A. Meru
B. Usambara
C. Abendares
D. Rwenzori
3. The most effective method of controlling soil erosion in the highland areas of East Africa is by
A. Contour ploughing
B. Inter cropping
C. Terracing
D. Shifting cultivation
4. Lines drawn on a map to show places having the same amount of temperature are called
A. Isohyets
B. Isotherms
C. Isobars
D. Contours
5. The major problem affections tea growing in Kericho is
A. Inadequate rainfall
B. Serve hail storms
C. Loss of soil fertility
D. Poor transport
6. The seven forks project is found on river
A. Tana
B. Athi
C. Nzoia
D. Mara
7. Which of the following activities is mostly responsible for deforestation in East Africa?
A. Quarrying
B. Road construction
C. Lumbering
D. Small scale industry
8. The most common type of fish caught on L. Tanganyika is?
A. Cod
B. Salmon
C. Dagaa
D. Tilapia
9. Which one of the following ports is found on lake Victoria?
A. Kigoma
B. Bukungu
C. Butiaba
D. Musoma
10. Lake Nakuru national park in Kenya is best known for
A. Giraffes
B. Elephants
C. Flamingoes
D. Buffalos
11. Inter-territorial trade in East Africa is not well developed because the countries
A. Are economically self reliant
B. Produce similar goods
C. Have a poor transport network
D. Are politically unstable
12. The Miombo woodlands are sparsely populated mainly because of
A. Remoteness
B. Poor soils
C. Tsetse flies
D. Thick vegetation
13. Which of the following lakes in East Africa were formed due to crustal down warping?
A. Victoria and kyoga
B. Tanganyika and Malawi
C. Turkana and Magadi
D. Bunyonyi and Mutanda
14. Minerals at tororo are obtained from
A. Crystalline rocks
B. Volcanic rocks
C. Sedimentary rocks
D. Sand stones
15. The instrument used to measure wing speed at a weather station is called
A. Barometer
B. Anemometer
C. Wind vane
D. Hygrometer
16. The major crop grown on the Ahero irrigation scheme is
A. Cotton
B. Tobacco
C. Rice
D. Ground nuts
17. Small scale industries should be encouraged in east Africa mainly because they
A. Are cheap to establish
B. Provide employment
C. Are capital saving
D. Require semi-skilled labour
18. Exotic tree species have been introduced in East Africa because they
A. Are more valuable
B. Have soft timber
C. Mature faster
D. Are more resistant
19. The most common method of catching fish on lake Victoria is
A. Purse seining
B. Trawling
C. Gill netting
D. Trolling
20. National parks have been established in East Africa in order to
A. Utilize marginal land
B. Promote tourism
C. Discourage nomadism
D. Conserve the environment
21. Kenya exports more industrial products than any other country in East Africa mainly because it
A. Has better quality goods
B. Is not landlocked
C. Has more industries
D. Is politically stable
22. Mt. Kilimanjaro is an example of
A. A volcanic plug
B. An exposed batholiths
C. A block mountain
D. A composite volcano
23. The Western parts of Kenya are densely populated mainly because of
A. Concentration of industries
B. Good road network
C. High fertility rates
D. Suitable climate
24. Which of the following rocks in East Africa are igneous
A. Obsidian and basalt
B. Limestone and coal
C. Quartz and graphite
D. Sandstone and abate
25. Construction of valley dams in Karamojong is very difficult mainly because of
A. Porous soils
B. Seasonal rivers
C. Land lockedness
D. Sedimentation
26. Pyrethrum in East Africa best grows in areas of
A. Cool moist conditioned
B. Low altitude
C. High temperatures
D. Seasonal flooding
27. Which one of the following features in East Africa was formed due to river deposition?
A. Wind gap
B. Waterfall
C. Delta
D. Fjord
28. Soil erosion in the Kondoa district of Tanzania has mainly been caused by
A. Seasonal rainfall
B. Overgrazing
C. Steep gradient
D. Shifting cultivation
29. Which of the following industries is found in Mombasa?
A. Copper smelting
B. Oil refining
C. Motor vehicle assembly
D. Watch making
30. The fishing industry in Uganda has improved mainly because of
A. Importation of modern fish gear
B. Increase in fish prices
C. Widening of the market
D. Favorable government policy
31. Which one of the following is a coastal land form?
A. Spit
B. Tam
C. Crater
D. ArĂȘte
32. Which of the following is an in land port?
A. Lamu
B. Malindi
C. Mwanza
D. Tanga
33. The Mubuku irrigation scheme obtains its water from river
A. Mpanga
B. Sebwe
C. Nyamugasani
D. Nyabisheke
34. Rail transport in East Africa is very important because it helps to
A. Open up remove areas
B. Cheaply transport bulky goods
C. Quickly transport perishable goods
D. Open up areas for tourism
35. The process by which a river erodes its bed using its load is called
A. Abrasion
B. Attrition
C. Hydraulic action
D. Solution

PART II
MAPWORK, PFOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA
Answer three questions from part II, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory
SECTION A
1. COMPULSORY QUESTION: MAPWORK
Answer three questions from section, candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering these questions.
Study the map extract 1:50,000 (UGANDA) Pakwach: series Y732; part of sheet 29/2; editions U.SD and answer the questions which follow:
a) State the grid reference of the following:
(i) Secondary trigonometrically station at Attar,
(ii) Road junction at Paraa.
b) Name the feature found at grid reference
(i) 173568,
(ii) 163718
c) Find the
(i) Road distance in Kilometers of the dry weather road from Boro (grid reference 185584) to the road junction (grid reference 296723),,
(ii) Area occupied by Albert Nile (excluding the swamps)
d) Draw a cross section of the area along easting 20, between Northings 65 and 73 on it, mark and label the following:
(i) R. Abongo,
(ii) The road,
(iii) A forest,
(iv) Ridges.
e) Describe the:
(i) Relief of the area,
(ii) Relationship between relief and communication in the area shown on the map.

2. COMPULSORY QUESTION: PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION
Answer all parts of this question, candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question
Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions that follow.
PHOTOGRAPH
a) Giving evidence, state the economic activity taking place in the photograph.
b) Describe the factors which have favored the activity stated in (a) above.
c) (i) Identify the problems faced by the people carrying out the activity shown in the photograph.
(ii)What steps should be taken to improve the economic activity shown in the photograph?
d) Giving reason for your answer, suggest any one area in East Africa where this photograph could have been taken.

SECTION B: EAST AFRICA
Answer one question from this section.
3. a) what is meant by the following:
(i) weather,
(ii) climate?
b) Describe how any one element of weather is measured at a weather station.
c) Explain the factors which have influenced the climate of East Africa.
d) Identify the problems resulting from charges in weather and climate conditions in East Africa.
4. Study the table below showing Uganda's urban and rural population by region (1991) and answer the questions that follow.

Region Total population Urban population Rural population
Central
Eastern
Northern
Western
4,900,000
4,120,000
3,200,000
4,520,000
1,200,000
320,000
170,000
220,000
3,700,000
3,800,000
3,000,000
4,300.000
Total 16,710,000 1,910,000 14,800,000


Source: adapted from the republic of Uganda (1996) statistical abstract MFEP; July 1996, p12.
a) Name the region with the highest percentage of the population living in
(i) Urban areas,
(ii) Rural areas.
b) Calculate the percentage of the total population living in
(i) Urban areas,
(ii) Rural areas
c) Describe the conditions that have favored the development of urban centres in East Africa.
d) Explain the effects of the development of urban centres in East Africa.
e) Name any one urban centre in East Africa.
5. With reference to any one fieldwork study you have carried out as an individual or a group,
a) State the:
(i) Topic of the study,
(ii) Objectives of the study.
b) Describe how you used the following methods to collect information during the study:
(i) Observation,
(ii) Sampling,
(iii) Map orientation.
c) Outline the problems you faced using the above methods.
d) Explain the factors influencing the types of land use in the area studied.
6. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name any one area covered by
(i) Montane forest,
(ii) tropical rain forest,
(iii) mangrove forest,
b) Describe the factors which have influenced the distribution of forests in East Africa.
c) Explain the importance of forestry resources to any country in East Africa.
d) Outline the problems facing the forestry industry in the country chosen in © above.
7. Study figure 1: Map of East Africa showing national parks and game reserves and answer the questions that follow.
MAP
a) (i) name the:
- National parks marked A, B and C,
- Game reserves marked D and E.
(ii) state any two tourist attractions found in either National park marked A or national park marked B.
b) Identify the factors which have led to the development of tourism in East Africa.
c) Explain the importance of the tourist sector to any one country in East Africa.
d) Outline the problems facing the tourist sector in East Africa..

PAPER 2
PART I: THE REST OF AFRICA
Answer two questions from this part.
1. Study table I below showing the climate of Durban, Natal province, Republic of south Africa and answer the questions that follow,
Table I: Durban province, Republic of South Africa. New edition. P39.

Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temp (0C) 25 26 24 22 20 17 17 18 19 21 23 24
Rainfall (mm) 112 125 135 85 50 25 25 37 75 125 125 125
a) Draw a suitable diagram to represent the information in the table.
b) Calculate the:
(i) Annual temperature range,
(ii) Total annual rainfall.
c) (i) Describe the relationship between temperature and rainfall at the station.
(ii)Identify the factors responsible for the relationship described in (c) (i) above.
d) Explain the effect of climate on agricultural activities in the Natal province.
2. a) draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name the;
(i) vegetation types:
- equatorial rain forests,
- Mediterranean vegetation,
- The Sahel sem - arid vegetation.
(ii) Latitudes:
- Equator,
- Tropic of cancer,
- Tropic of Capricorn.
b) Describe the characteristics of the:
(i) Mediterranean vegetation,
(ii) Sahel/Semi -arid vegetation.
c) Identify the:
(i) economic activities carried out by the people living in the Sahel region.
(ii) problems faced by people livening in the Sahel region.
d) For any one country in the Sahel region. Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems identified in (c)(ii) above.
3. Study figure 1: Map of Africa, showing population distribution and answer the questions which follow:
MAP
a) Explain the factors responsible for the population density in the areas marked.
(i) A,
(ii) B,
(iii) C.
b) Identify the problems associated with the population density in areas marked.
(i) A,
(ii) C.
c) State any two countries in Africa which have,
(i) A high population density,
(ii) A low population density.
d) For any one country named in (c)(i) above, describe the steps being taken to solve the problem of high population density.
4. Study figure 2: Map showing forestry in Gabon and answer the questions that follow
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) River marked 1,
(ii) Towns marked 2 and 3,
(iii) Ocean marked C,
(iv) Country marked 4.
b) Identify the factors which have influenced the development of forestry activities in area marked:
(i) A,
(ii) B.
c) Explain the:
(i) Prophets which have resulted from the forestry activities in area marked A,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (c) (i) above.
d) Outline the contribution of the forestry industry to Gabon.
5. Study table II below showing iron ore production in the republic of south Africa (1975-1990) and answer the questions that follow:
Table II: from ore production in the republic of South Africa ('000' metric tons)

Year Annual production ('000s metric tons)
1975 12,297.7
1980 26,310.0
1985 24,414.0
1990 30,347.0


SOURCE: UNDP: would resource a guide to global environment (1992-3). Towards sustainable development p 321.
a) Draw a bar graph to show the information given in the table.
b) (i) Describe the trend of iron ore production in the Republic of South Africa between 1975 and 1990.
(ii)Calculate the percentage change in iron ore production between 1975 and 1990
c) Explain the importance of the mining sector to the republic of south Africa
d) Identify the:
(i) Problems affecting the mining sector in the republic of South Africa.
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.
6. Study figure 3: Map showing the site of Tema Port and answer the questions that follow
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Lagoons marked A and B,
(ii) Harbors marked C and D,
(iii) Industries marked E and D,
(iv) Industries marked E and F,
(v) Ocean marked G.
b) Explain the factors which favored the location of Tema Port
c) Outline the functions of Tema port.
d) Describe the:
(i) Problems affecting the development of Tema Port,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.

PART II:
STUDIES IN DEVELOPMENT
Answer two questions from this part.
REGION I: NORTH AMERICA
7. Shall table III below showing land use on the Howard and Blythe cotton plantation in the south (U.S.A) and answer the questions that follow:
TABLE III: land use on the Howard and Blythe cotton plantation.

Land use Area (Hectares)
Cotton 364
Soya beans 635
Wheat 111
Fallow 162
Others 101
Total 1316


Source: adapted from: Yiga Matovu, M. (1991) North America, certificate geography p 63.
a) Draw a pie chart to snow land use on the Howard and Blythe plantation.
b) Identify the factors which above influenced the allocation of land on the plantation.
c) Explain the importance of the agricultural sector to the development of the south.
d) Outline the:
(i) Problems facing the agricultural sector in the south,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.
8. a) Draw a sketch map of the area covered by the Tennessee valley authority and on it, mark and name:
(i) state: Alabama and Tennessee,
(ii) rivers: Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi,
(iii) towns: Nashville and Colbert.
b) Explain the reason for the establishment of the Tennessee valley authority.
c) How has the Tennessee valley project contributed to the modernization of the region?
d) Name any two areas in East Africa where a river development project has been established.
9. Study figure 4: Map of southern New England provided below and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) States marked A, B and C,
(ii) Towns marked 1 and 2,
(iii) River marked 3,
(iv) Ocean marked 4,
b) (i) State three industries found in any of the towns named in (a) (ii) above.
(ii)Explain the conditions that have favored the establishment of industries in New England.
c) Outline the contributions of the industrial sector to New England.
d) Describe the steps being taken by New England to sustain the industrial sector.

REGION II: RHINELANDS
10. a) Draw a sketch map of Switzerland and on it, mark and name the:
(i) physical regions: Alps, Jura and the plateau,
(ii) rivers: Rhine land Ticino,
(iii) tourist resorts : Lausanne, Interlaken and st.Morits
b) State two tourist attractions found in the:
(i) Swiss plateau,
(ii)Swiss Alps
c) Explain the contribution of the tourist industry to the development of Switzerland.
d) Why is the tourist industry in Switzerland more developed than that of East Africa?
11. Study fig. 5: Diagram showing the Rhine rift valley and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name the physical regions marked:
(i) A,
(ii) B,
(iii) C.
b) Describe the processes which lead to the formation of the Rhine rift valley.
c) (i) Identify the economic activities taking place in the Rhine rift valley.
(ii)Describe the factors which have led to the development of the economic activities in (c)(i) above.
d) Explain the contribution of the Rhine rift valley to development of Germany.
12. Study fig.6: Map showing the Zuider Zee reclamation scheme in the Netherlands and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Polders marked A, B and C,
(ii) River marked 1,
(iii) Water bodies marked 2 and 3,
(iv) Town marked D.
b) Describe how the polders were created.
c) Explain the importance of the polders to the people of the Netherlands.
d) Outline the :
(i) Problems facing the people living on the polders.
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

REGION III: CHINA
13. Study table IV showing the structure of communes in china and answer the questions that follow:
Table IV: the structure of communes in china.

Classification No. of people Area of land (Hectare)
50 families = 1 production Team 300 20
10 Production Teams = 1 Brigade - -
05 Brigade = 1 commune - -


a) Calculate the:
(i) Number of people found in a:
- Brigade
- Commune.
(ii) Area of land forming a:
- Brigade,
- Commune.
b) Describe the characteristics of communal farming in china.
c) Identify the:
(i) Advantages,
(ii) Disadvantages, of communal framing in china.
d) (i) Mention any two communes found in china.
(ii)Outline the steps being taken to improve communal farming in china.
14. a) What is meant by the term "Entrepot"?
b) Explain the conditions which favored the development of Hong Kong as an entrepot.
c) Outline the contribution of Hong Kong to the development of china.
d) Identify the:
(i) problems affecting Hong Kong entrepot,
(ii) measures being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.
15. Study fig 7. Map of china showing population distribution and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name any two regions of china which are
(i) Densely populated.
(ii) Sparsely populated
b) Explain the factors that have influenced population distribution in china
c) Identify the:
(i) Advantages,
(ii) Disadvantages, of a large population size in china.
d) Outline the steps being taken by china to solve the problems of a large population size.

GEOGRAPHY paper 1&2 1999

PAPER 1
PART I
1. The existence of more people in an area than the available resources is called
A. Sparse population.
B. Over population
C. Under population
D. Dense population
2. Which of the following lakes in East Africa was formed as a result of lava damming?
A. Bunyonyi
B. Victoria
C. Rukwa
D. Natron
3. Temperature inversion in East Africa is mainly experienced in the
A. Lake Victoria basin
B. Kigezi highlands
C. The coastal region
D. Nyika plateau
4. Which of the following rocks are metamorphic?
A. Basalt
B. Sandstone
C. Granite
D. Marble
5. Agricultural production in east Africa can best be increased by
A. Employing more labour
B. Improving the roads
C. Acquiring more capital
D. Stabilizing agricultural prices
6. Soda ash in East Africa is obtained from lake
A. Magadi
B. Mburo
C. Turkana
D. Rukwa
7. Which of the following best represents natural vegetation zonation on mt Kilimanjaro?
A. Savannah, forests and moorland
B. Forests, savannah and moorland
C. Moorland, savannah and forests
D. Savannah, moorland and forests
8. Over fishing on Uganda's lakes has mainly resulted from
A. Increased demand for fish
B. Improved transport routes
C. Use of wrong size nets
D. Improved fishing methods
9. Which of the following commodities are handled by the port of Mombasa?
A. Coal and coffee
B. Crude oil and cement
C. Cotton and wheat
D. Sugar and pyrethrum
10. Diamonds in Tanzania are found in
A. Igneous rocks
B. Sedimentary rocks
C. Metamorphic rocks
D. Leached areas
11. The East African countries predominantly export
A. Fish products
B. Agricultural products
C. Mineral products
D. Forestry products
12. The high population density in Kabale district is mainly due to
A. Availability of food
B. Immigration from Rwanda
C. High fertility rates
D. Land fragmentation
13. The renewed erosive activity by a river is called
A. River regime
B. Siltation
C. Rejuvenation
D. Hydrolysis
14. Lateritic soils in east Africa develop as a result of
A. Sedimentation
B. Exfoliation
C. Leaching
D. Water logging
15. The instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure at a weather station is called
A. Hydrometer
B. Barometer
C. Hygrometer
D. Anemometer
16. Ahero scheme in Kenya obtains its irrigation waters from river
A. Nyando
B. Sondu
C. Gucha
D. Nzoia
17. In which one of the following towns in East Africa is cement manufactured?
A. Lodwar
B. Mbale
C. Dodoma
D. Tanga
18. Mangrove forests in East Africa are found
A. Along the cost
B. On mountain peaks
C. On L.victoria shores
D. In the Miombo woodlands
19. The greatest problem facing the fishing industry in East Africa is
A. Low fish population
B. Limited market
C. Poor fishing gear
D. Limited fish species
20. Which of the following fish landing sites is found on lake Edward?
A. Butiaba
B. Musoma
C. Rwampanga
D. Rwenshama
21. A forestation programmes in East Africa are mainly intended for
A. Conserving the environment
B. Promoting eco-tourism
C. Providing wood fuel
D. Increasing humus in the soil
22. River transport is not well developed in East Africa because most rivers have
A. Shallow valleys
B. Suspended boulders
C. Water falls
D. Meanders
23. The feature formed when a sheet of magma cools along a bedding plane is called a
A. Dyke
B. Lacolith
C. Hatholith
D. Sill
24. In Tanzania cattle ranching is mainly carried out around
A. Mbeya
B. Kongwa
C. Songea
D. Kigoma
25. North eastern Uganda is sparsely populated due to
A. Limited social services
B. Hostile tribes
C. Unreliable rainfall
D. Leached soils
26. Which one of the following mountains is a block mountain?
A. Kilimanjaro
B. Rwenzori
C. Elgon
D. Kenya
27. The kigezi highlands experience soil erosion mainly because of
A. Land fragmentation
B. Cultivating steep slopes
C. Draining wetlands
D. Torrential rainfall
28. The seasonal changes is the volume of water in a river is called
A. Profile
B. Rejuvenation
C. Watershed
D. Regime
29. Coral reefs in east Africa grow
A. In temperatures below 100C
B. Near river mouths
C. In very deep waters
D. In salty waters
30. The major problems facing pastoralists in Northern - Eastern Uganda are
A. Tsetse flies and water shortage
B. Poor roads and pastures
C. Tsetse flies and poor breeds
D. Water shortage and poor breeds
31. Coal in southern Tanzania has not been mined due to
A. Low market demand
B. Poor transport system
C. Limited skilled labour
D. Its low grade
32. Wild life conservation is mainly intended to
A. Minimize poaching
B. Attract tourists
C. Provide medicine
D. Modify climate
33. The transport sector in Northern eastern Kenya is poorly developed because the area is
A. Hilly and rugged
B. Tsetse fly infested
C. Under populated
D. Unproductive
34. The most common method of fish preservation used on lake kyoga landing sites is
A. Salting
B. Sun-drying
C. Freezing
D. Smoking
35. In East Africa, most game reserves are located in areas of
A. Low rainfall
B. High population
C. Very fertile soils
D. Rugged terrain

PART II
MAPWORK, PHOTOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION AND EAST AFRICA
Answer three questions from part II, including questions 1 and 2 which are compulsory
SECTION A
1. COMPULSORY QUESTION: MAPWORK
Answer all parts of this section. Candidates are advised to spend 40 minutes answering this question.
Study the map extract 1:50,000(UGANDA) Omoro; series Y732; part sheet 22/4; edition 2-USD and answer the questions that follow:
a) State the grid reference of the following:
(i) Omoro dispensary,
(ii) Secondary trigonometrically station at Onin
b) Name the feature found at grid reference
(i) 422892
(ii) 262901
c) Measure and state in kilometers the distance of the dry weather road between the junction at Opit (grid reference 418894) and Laminable road junction (grid reference 239982)
d) Draw a sketch map of the area shown on the map and on it, mark and label the following features:
(i) Transport routes,
(ii) River: Laminangol, Tochi and Pece,
(iii) Permanent swamps
(iv) Planned settlement
e) With specific examples, explain the factors which have influenced the settlement patterns in the area shown on the map.
f) Identify the economic activities taking place in the area shown on the map.

2. COMPULSORY QUESTIONS: PHOTOGRAPH INTERPRETATION.
Answer all parts of this section. Candidates are advised to spend 20 minutes answering this question.
Study the photograph provided below and answer the questions which follow.
PHTOGRAPH
a) State the economic activity taking place in the foreground.
b) Explain the conditions which have favored the economic activity stated in (a) above.
c) Identify the problems faced by the people carrying out the economic activity stated in (a) above.
d) Giving reasons for your answer, suggest one area in East Africa where this photograph could have been taken.

SECTION B: EAST AFRICA
3. Study the table below showing Uganda's population living in urban areas (1991) and answer the questions that follow.

Region Urban population
Central
Eastern
Notherv
Western
1,200,000
320,000
170,000
220,000
Total 1,910,000


Source adapted from: the republic of Uganda 1996 statistical abstract. MFEP; July 1996 p15.
a) Draw a pie chart to show the portion of the urban population living in each region.
b) Explain the factors which have led to the development of urban centres in East Africa.
c) Describe the problems resulting from the development of urban centres in East Africa.
d) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (c) above.
4. Study figure 1: Map of Kilombero valley irrigation scheme and answer the questions which follow.
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Rivers marked A and B,
(ii) Towns marked 1, 2 and 3,
(iii) Plantation crop grown in the area marked C.
b) Describe the factors which influenced the location of the kilombero irrigation scheme.
c) Explain the contribution of the irrigation scheme to the people living in the area.
d) Identify the problems facing plantation farming in East Africa.
5. For any one fieldwork study you have carried out,
a) State the:
(i) Topic of study
(ii) Objectives of the study
b) Describe the methods you used to obtain information during the field study.
c) Explain the advantages of using the methods in (b) above.
d) Explain the effect of the land use types on the environment in the area studied.
6. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name areas occupied by tropical rain forests.
b) Describe the
(i) characteristics of tropical rain forests,
(ii) conditions which have favored the growth of tropical rain forests.
c) State any two human activities which
(i) most destroy the tropical rain forests,
(ii) least destroy the tropical rain forests in East Africa.
d) Explain the steps being taken to conserve tropical rain forests in East Africa.
7. a) Draw a sketch map of East Africa and on it, mark and name:
(i) National parks: Masaba, Queen Elizabeth and Ruaha.
(ii) Tourist attraction: Mombasa, Arusha and Kampala.
b) Identify any three types of tourist attractions in East Africa besides wildlife.
c) Explain the conditions influencing the development of the tourist industry in East Africa.
d) Outline the benefits of the tourist industry to any one country in East Africa.

PAPER 2
PART I: THE REST OF AFRICA
Answer two questions from this part.
1. Study figure 1: Map of Africa showing climatic regions and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Describe the characteristics of the climate in region marked:
(i) A
(ii) D
b) Explain the influence of climate on economic activities in any one region named in (a) (ii) above.
c) Outline the problems faced by the people involved in the economic activities identified in (c) above.
2. Study table I: showing Africa's population growth and answer the questions which follow:
Table I: Africa's population growth (1950-2000 projected)

Year Population (millions)
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000 (protected)
199
270
344
453
616
818


Source: adapted from White R. G. Africa: studies for East African students, p7.
a) Calculate the percentage change in population between:
(i) 1950 and 1960,
(ii) 1980 and 1990
b) Draw a line graph to show the trend of population growth in Africa between 1950 and 2000 (projected).
c) Describe the:
(i) Trend of population growth,
(ii) Factors which contributed to the population trend shown in (b) above.
d) Explain the:
(i) Problems resulting from high population growth rates in Africa,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d) (i) above.
3. a) Draw a sketch map of southern Nigeria and on it, mark and label the following:
(i) areas growing cocoa, rubber and oil palm,
(ii) towns: Lagos and port Harcourt,
(iii) rivers: Niger and Benue
b) Describe the conditions that have favored the growing of the crops named in (a)(i) above.
c) Explain the contribution of the agricultural sector to the development of Nigeria.
d) Outline the:
(i) Problems facing agriculture in southern Nigeria,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems outlined in (d) (i) above.
4. a) Draw a sketch map of Africa and on it, mark and name:
(i) any three commercial ocean fishing grounds,
(ii) ocean currents: canary, Benguela and Guinea,
(iii) Ports: Lagos and Cape Town.
b) Describe the conditions which have favored the development of commercial fishing in any one fishing ground named in (a) (i) above.
c) Explain the factors limiting commercial fishing in any one fishing ground.
d) Outline the steps being taken to improve the fishing industry in the area chosen in (c) above.
5. Study table II showing the exports of Zambia and answer the questions that follow:
Table II: exports of Zambia

Commodity Percentage
Copper
Cobolt
Zinc
Lead
Tobacco
other
82.7
12.1
2.6
0.6
0.4
1.6
Total 100%


Sources: adapted from White .R. G. Africa studies for East African students. P183
a) Draw a pie chart to show the composition of Zambia's exports.
b) (i) Name the dominant mineral exported by Zambia.
(ii)Calculate the percentage contribution of mineral exports.
(ii)State any two mining centres in Zambia.
c) Explain the factors which have favored the development of mining sector in Zambia.
d) Outline the:
(i) Problems resulting from over dependence on one dominant export commodity,
(ii) Steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.

6. Study figure 2: Map showing part of the Nile valley and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Canal marked 1,
(ii) Dam marked 2,
(iii) Lake marked 3,
(iv) Towns marked 4 and 5,
(v) Rivers marked A and B.
b) Explain the:
(i) Factors which led to the establishment of the dam marked 2,
(ii) Importance of the dam to the people living in the area.
c) Identify the problems that have resulted from the establishment of the dam.
d) Outline the steps being taken to solve the problems in (c) above.

PART II:
STUDIES IN DEVELOPMENT
Answer two questions from this part
REGION I: NORTH AMERICA
7. a) Draw a sketch map of the Great lakes and st.lawrence sea way and on it, mark and name:
(i) River st.lawrence,
(ii) Lakes: Ontario and Superior,
(iii) Thee wetland canal,
(iv) Towns: Duluth and Montreal.
b) Describe the steps taken to improve navigation on the Great lakes and St.lawrence River.
c) Explain the benefits which resulted from the construction of the st.lawrence sea way.
d) Outline the:
(i) problems which still limit navigation on the st. Lawrence Seaway,
(ii) measures being taken to overcome the problems in (d)(i) above.
8. a) Name any three:
(i) states under Tennessee valley Authority (TVA).
(ii) Rivers draining the area under the Tennessee valley authority,
b) Describe the conditions which led to the establishment of the Tennessee valley authority in the states named in (a) above.
c) Outline the activities of the Tennessee valley authority in the states named in (a) above.
d) Explain the benefits of the Tennessee valley authority to the United States of America.
9. Study figure 3: Map of British Columbia and answer the questions that follow:
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Ports marked 1 and 2,
(ii) Island marked A,
(iii) Rivers marked B and C,
(iv) Ocean current marked D,
(v) Strait marked E.
b) (i) State any two types of fish caught in British Columbia.
(ii)Describe the methods of fishing used in British Columbia.
c) Describe the conditions which have favored the development of the fishing industry in British Columbia.
d) Explain the contribution of the fishing industry to British Columbia.

REGION II: RHINELANDS
10. a) Draw a sketch map of Switzerland and on it, mark and name:
(i) the three physical region,
(ii) river Rhine
(iii) industrial towns: Easel, Zurich and Geneva.
b) State any two types of industries found in both Easel and Geneva.
c) Explain the factors which have led to the development of industries in Switzerland.
d) Outline the:
(i) problems facing the industrial sector in Switzerland,
(ii) steps being taken to solve the problems in (d)(i) above.
11. Study figure 4: Map of the Rhine rift valley provided below and answer the questions which follow:
MAP
a) Name the:
(i) Towns marked 1, 2 and 3,
(ii) Rivers marked A and B,
(iii) Highlands marked C and D.
b) Explain the processes which led to the formation of the Rhine rift valley.
c) (i)State any three types of crops grown in the Rhine rift valley.
(ii)Describe the conditions which have favored crop growing in the Rhine rift valley.
d) Outline the problems faced by farmers in the Rhine rift valley.
12. Study table III below showing land use types in the Netherlands and answer the questions which follow:
Table III: land use types in the Netherlands

Land use type Land area ('000 ha)
Arable
Permanent pasture
Forest
Builtip/ waste land
977
1291
288
805
Total 3361


Source: adapted from: Hughes, D and Randle, T. the Rhine basin, a study of development p165.
a) Calculate the percentage of the land area under:
(i) Arable,
(ii) Permanent pasture,
(iii) Forest,
(iv) Built up/ wasteland.
b) Draw a pie chart to represent the relative importance of each land use type.
c) (i) State any one economic activity being carried out under each of the land use types.
(ii)Describe the conditions which have made it necessary to leave a large proportion of land in the Netherlands under permanent pasture.
d) Explain the contribution of any one of the following land use types to the Netherlands:
- Arable
- Permanent pasture

REGION III: CHINA
13. a) Name any two regions in china where the commune system of farming is practical.
b) Describe the characteristics of the commune system of farming in china.
c) Explain the conditions which have favored the establishment of agricultural communes I any one region named in (a) above.
d) Outline the:
(i) benefits of the commune system of farming,
(ii) problems facing the commune system of farming in china.
14. a) Draw a sketch map of the Manchuria region of china and on it mark and name:
(i) rivers: Yalu and Liao
(ii) supung dam,
(iii) Korea bay
(iv) Industrial towns: Penki, Slan and Fusin.
b) Explain the conditions which have favored the establishment of industries in Manchuria.
c) Outline the benefits of the industrial sector to china.
d) Identify the problems facing industrial development in china.
15. Study table IV: showing the climate of station X located in the Yangtze-Kiang river basin and answer the questions that follow:
Table IV: climate of station X

Month J F M A M J J A S O N D
Temp (0C) 4.4 61 10.0 16.7 11.7 26.7 29.4 29.4 25.0 19.4 12.8 7.2
R.F.(mm) 48 48 97 152 165 244 180 97 71 81 48 28


a) Draw a suitable graph to show the climate of station X.
b) Calculate the:
(i) Annual temperature range,
(ii) Total annual rainfall
c) Describe the characteristics of the climate for station X.
d) Explain the influence of climate on agricultural activities in the Yangtze-Kiang river basin.