Sunday, 18 January 2015

syllabus of o level history,east south and west africa

O-LEVEL 2006-2010


I East Africa from C.1000 to independence.

1. Early history of East Africa, C.1000-1500.

2. The formation of East African states, C. 1500-1800.

3. The Later History of the coast, 1498-1800.

4. The growth of external contacts and pressures. 1800-1880.

5. The European scramble and response of East African Peoples.C.1880-1906.

6. East Africa under colonial rule. 1906-1963.

7. The emergence of Modern East African Nations, C. 1900-1963.

II. West Africa from C. 1000 to Independence.

1 Trans- Saharan trade and its influence on the development of West Africa.

2 The rise, expansion, development, and decline of Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Kanem-Bornu empires.

3 The political, economic and social organization of the people of Sene-gambia: The Woloff, Fula, and Madinka States.

4 The rise, expansion and political, economic, and social organization of Oyo, Benin, Dahomey, and Asante (Ashanti). The importance of Yoruba and Benin art.

5 External trade on the West Coast of Africa and its effects up to 1800.

6 The political and economic development of the coastal states: Sierra Leone, Liberia, Fante, the Yoruba states, Yoruba States, Niger Delta States; the decline of the slave trade and the development of new trade.

7 The Islamic movements of the 19th century: Fulani, Kanem-Bornu, Tokolor, and the Madinka Empire.

8 Christian missionary activity and its significance before and after the Scramble.

9 European imperialism in West Africa and African response: Ahmadu, Samori, Asante, the Fante Confederation, Dahomey, Niger Delta States, Benin, the Fulani Emirates.

10 West Africa under colonial rule: Frech system of administration, British system with special reference to Ghana and Nigeria; the German system in Togo.

11 Economic and social developments under colonial rule; changes in communications, industry, commerce and agriculture; urbanisation; health and education; all with special reference to Senegal and Ghana.

12 National movements in West Africa since 1900 and the regaining of independence with special attention to Ghana, Nigeria the Rasemblement Democratique Africain (RDA) and Guinea Bissau.

111. Central Africa from C. 1000 to Independence.

1 Early civilisations and states:
a. Great Zimbabwe, Mwene-Mutapu, Kongo.
b. Lunda-Luba states: Mwata Yamvo, Bemba, Mwata Kazembe.
c. Malawi states: Cewa, Undi.

2 Portuguese in Angola, Congo, Mozambique and the Zambezi Valley.

3 The Mfecane band its impact on Central Africa: Ngoni, Sotho, Lozi, Ndebele (Matabele) and Gaza.

4 The Baya, Banda and Zande invaders of the Northern Congo Basin.

5 African trading systems and peoples: Luanda, Chokwe, Yao, Rozwi, Bisa and Swahili/Arab.

6 Christian missionary activity and its effects from 1850.

7 The scramble for and partition of Central Africa. African Response: Ndebele, Mashona, Lozi, Zande, Yeke, Yao, Gaza kingdom.

8 Central Africa under colonial rule: Portuguese system of administration with special attention to Mozambique; British system with special attention to Northern Rhodesia. (Zambia), Belgian System in Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo); French system with special attention to Congo.

9 Economic and social developments under colonial rule: changes in communication, industry, commerce and agriculture; urbanisation; health and education; all with special reference to Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).

10 Nationalist movements in Central Africa since 1900 and the regaining of independence with special attention to Zaire, Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique.

IV. South Africa from C.1000 to Independence.

1. The earliest peoples of South Africa: the Khoisan and the Bantu: the origins, migrations and settlement of South African people. Their political social and economic organization.

2. The Dutch at the Cape: settlement and expansion. Its impact on African society and the African response.

3. British rule at the Cape. Relationship with the Africa people and with the Boers.

4. The Great Trek: causes; course; effects on Africans, Boers and British.

5. The Mfecane and origins of the Zulu, Sotho, Swazi and Tswana states; their organization and development.

6. The Boer republics and the British Occupation of Natal: political and economic systems and the African response. Relations with African states and peoples.

7. Missionary activity and its significance in the 19th and 20th centuries: the Dutch Reformed Church and the Independent Churches.

8. Economic developments up to 1910: farming; mineral discoveries and their political, social, and economic effects on Africans, Boers and British.

9. The Scramble: Anglo-German rivalry, Namibia (South West Africa) and Botswana; Anglo-Boer wars: unification of South Africa and its significance.

10. African response to the Scramble: Zulus resistance under Cetshwayo and the Bambata Rebellion; the 'Gun War' (Cape-Basuto); the Nama and Herero in Namibia (South West Africa); Khama of Botswana.

11. British rule in Lesotho, Swaziland and Botswana. Nationalist movements up to independence.

12. Constitutional, social and economic developments since 1910: White rule and apartheid; farming, industrial expansion; urbanisation, communications; education and distribution of wealth.

13. African nationalism in South Africa since 1910: trade unions; political organizations; armed resistance.

14. Namibia: German and South African rule; African nationalism.

15. South Africa and outside world today U.N.O.; N.A.T.O.; O.A.U.. Sanctions and dialogue.

what were the effects of the bantu migration in eastafrica

Effects of the Bantu Migration

The results of the Bantu migration were both positive and negative.

Positive results

The results of the Bantu migration were both positive and negative.
Positive results. The positive results include;

Introduction of iron working: they introduced iron-working and the use of iron tools in the interior of East Africa were at first using stone tools but when iron-smelting was started, there was an increase in food production.

Introduction of new crops e.g. yams, bananas: the Bantu introduced and increased the knowledge of food and extensive crop cultivation. Earlier on, the inhabitants of East Africa were food gatherers, but with iron smelting and its results, food production seriously started.

The absorbed other tribes e.g. the gathers: This led to a widespread Bantu languages of “NTU” prefix in East Africa.

They introduced centralized administration: They introduced a centralized system of government whereby the king acted as the overall ruler, under whom were the other chiefs, down to the lay person.

Introduced a system of building permanent homes: They opened new land to settlement in families, clans and villages.

The knowledge of iron smelting which the Bantu introduced led to the making of hoes and pangas for tilling and clearing land, the bows, arrows and spears for defense and protection.

They introduced subsistence agriculture, whereby they grew enough food for home consumption, and the rest could be kept in case of shortages, or be exchanged in barter trade.

They led to a rise of large states and bigger tribes in East Africa, e.g. the Baganda, Kikuyu, Nyamwezi. e.t.c

Negative effects

The Bantu migration led to depopulation: This was caused by the frequent attacks made by the Bantu against the people East Africa for land, through wars. Many people died through these wars, e.g. the Zimba would attack people at the coast, kill them, and eat their fresh (i.e. cannibalism).

There was loss of culture due to cultural absorption: This was brought about due to Bantu intermarrying with the non- Bantu peoples, whom they came across.

There was transformation of languages into new ones: This led to the dying down of some of the Bantu languages, while others remained.

describe the migration and settlement of the bantu

Description of the Bantu movements and settlement

The Bantu is believed to have moved in four groups.  These groups were; Interlacustrine Bantu, Central Bantu, Highland Bantu and Southern Tanzania Bantu.

i) Interlacustrine Bantu or Western Bantu

This group was also referred to as the lake region Bantu.  They entered East Africa between L. Edward and Albert and settled in the areas North and West of L. Victoria between 1000 – 1300 AD.  They were basically agriculturists.  Others moved west to Kenya and Eastern Uganda.

ii) Central Bantu

These moved into East Africa between L. Edward and L. Tanganyika and first settled in Central Tanzania between 1000 –1300 AD for example, the Sukuma and Nyamwezi.  Others later crossed and settled in Tanzania Plateau and Taita Hills around 1300 AD. Others moved north.

iii) Highland Bantu

These settled in the Kenya Highlands around 1600 –1800 AD.  These include the Kamba, Kikuyu, Embu, Chuka.  They probably moved north from the Taita hills. Some writers have suggested that about 1300 the Chuka came up from the Tana river and were the first to arrive in the Mt. Kenya area. The Embu followed them, about 1425. The last group, the Kikuyu seem to have arrived in the Muranga by the middle of the 16th Century and in Kiambu by the end of the 17th Century.  The migration of the Emba further was halted by the Masaai.  The migrations of the Meru and related groups probably began at the Coast.

iv) Southern Tanzania Bantu

This group entered through L. Malawi and L. Tanganyika.  They are also believed to Habe come from East Africa around 1000 – 1300.  This group includes the Bena, Yao, Hehe.

According to the tradition between about 1591 and 1698, the Swahili sections of Kilidini, Changamwe and Tangana moved to Mombasa and formed Kalindini town. Where they had earlier migrated from Shungwaya because of attacks by the Galla and Somali. The Segeju and various sections of the Milikenda and other Swahili groups to join the Kilindini group and related peoples on the mainland behind Mombasa later joined them.

what were the causes of the bantu migration

The reasons for the migration of the Bantu are not known but they most likely included the following;

Drought and famine: They moved due to the fear of famine, which broke out due to overcrowding and drought. The climate in their cradle land had become unreliable/unpredictable.

Population increase which resulted into over crowding: They migrated due to population pressure, e.g. they became overpopulated in their cradle land. This led to the scarcity of grazing and agriculture land, and so they had to move to look for more land, both for agriculture and for their cattle.

The constant attacks (external pressure) from stronger tribes in West Africa and the Nile valley. They moved due to external pressure, especially due to the migration of the Arabs into West Africa. The Arabs were believed to be more hostile, and so Africans were forced to move southwards.

Internal conflicts from the Bantu tribes: they migrated due to internal misunderstandings/conflicts between the different clans. These conflicts concerned the ownership of agriculture area, the shortage of grazing lands and watering areas.

Epidemics and diseases/natural calamities: The Bantu moved due to natural disasters, e.g. earthquakes, over flooding of rivers like river Niger, sickness, diseases such as Nagana caused by Tsetse flies, sleeping sickness e.t.c.

Search for fertile land: Since they were predominantly farmers, the Bantu migrated
in order to find more land which could be more fertile than the cradle land, which could no longer support them. E.g. they had changed from hunting and gathering fruits, to farming and had even discovered new crops such as yams, banana, and e.t.c

Love for adventure: They moved due to their desire for adventure, i.e. they wanted to find out what was happening in other areas.

Group influence: Some moved because they had seen their relatives and friends move.

Need for water and pasture for their animals forced them to move.

The Bantu migrated in order to export their iron-working culture. They had discovered the knowledge of iron working and had invented iron tools. These iron tools had transformed the agricultural sector by making the clearing of land fro cultivation faster and more efficient.

what were the effect of missionaries pin eastafrica

Effects of missionaries in East Africa

They spread Christianity and baptized many converts. Catechists were also trained who helped in the spread of Christianity for example, in Uganda by 1911 many people had been converted and many cathedrals and churches were built like the Kikuyu churches (Charismatic Arathi or spirit churches.)

African religious beliefs, culture and traditions were despised and demoralized for example the birth and murder of twins, human sacrifice.

They established hospitals and clinics which offered modern medicine plus research in tropical diseases like malaria, small pox, yellow fever and sleeping sickness which had claimed many lives. For example Dr Albert Cook built Mengo hospital.

They introduced the European system of management and styles of dress and architecture which have been adopted by many people in East Africa today.

They put to an end the inter-tribal or inter-village wars and established a stable and peaceful society under one faithful leader (centralization).

They studied African languages and translated the Bible into various languages. For example Kraft translated the New Testament of the Bible into Swahili, Bishop Edward Steere based in Zanzibar learnt and studied Swahili and translated books from English to Swahili, published the New Testament and the entire Bible in 1891.

They established printing presses like Marianum press and published newspapers.

They opened up primary and secondary schools as well as training collages for teachers and trade schools for craftsmen e.g. Kisubi Vocational School, Kiteredde Brothers in Masaka. In the technical schools, carpentry and brick laying skills were obtained.      

A new class of elite emerged. Africans educated mainly in English and French emerged, these later served as doctors, lawyers, clerks, teachers, catechists, agriculturalists and priests who played a great role of spreading Christianity. For example, in 1890, Africans were ordained as priests of the University Mission to Central Africa in Tanganyika.

They paved way for the improvement of agriculture through establishing experimental farms and plantations where new crops, better methods of farming and equipment  were introduced for example cotton was introduced by Kenneth Boroup in 1903 and Africans were taught how to use a plough and how to grow coffee.

Missionaries improved communication and transport which in turn led to the opening up of the hinterland of Africa. The building of strong boats and ships gave Europeans courage to travel far from home.

Missionaries destroyed local industries like craft industry e.g. blacksmiths, pottery work were all destroyed and replaced with European products e.g. manufactured items like cups, saucepans, etc.

They contributed to the rise of nationalism. This was made possible through education where the African elite emerged and started demanding for independence e.g. Tom Mboya, Obote, Nyerere, and Kenyatta.

They fought slave trade which was later abolished and equality and liberty for all was encouraged in East Africa.

Mission stations were developed in towns like Rabai missionary station near Mombasa in 1846 Bagamoyo, Tabora, etc.

Teachers' guide

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Revision Questions

what were the problems faced by the missionaries in eastafrica

Problems faced by missionaries in East Africa

Christian missionaries in East Africa were faced with various problems which clipped their activities at times. These include:

They faced the problem of language barrier. This was because East Africa had a multiplicity of languages hence rendering communication between the missionaries and the local people very difficult.

There was a problem of the influence of Islam. Arabs being the first group of people to arrive at the coast and interior had deep rooted Islam into the people thus making it difficult for the people to easily adopt Christianity. For example, by the time Sir Edward Frere arrived in East Africa (1873) Rebmann had only 6 converts.

Existence of tropical diseases was yet another problem faced by the Christian missionaries. Tropical diseases like malaria, small pox, claimed many missionary lives thus making progress in their activities very difficult since they could be left very few in numbers.

Another hardship was caused by geographical barriers. These included hilly areas, rivers, lakes and forests. These hindered their free movement to various places thus a threat to their activities.

Divisions and quarrels between various missionary groups for example Catholics versus Protestants was a hindrance to their activities. This could create divisions and biases among the believers thus weakening their capacity to convert more converts.

Poor transport was a hindrance to the missionary activities in East Africa. This was due to undeveloped roads at the time to help in the movement of missionaries from one place to another.

Presence of hostile tribes in East Africa was also a problem that faced Christian missionaries. The Nandi and Masai who believed that strangers were not supposed to pass via their land could attack and kill many missionaries thereby reducing their numbers compared to the increasing number of converts.

The presence of wild animals was also a threat to the missionary activities in East Africa. Man enters in Tsavo National Park consumed and threatened many whites. This clipped their activities at times.

The missionaries faced the problem of lack of supplies. They for example lacked enough money, accommodation and drugs. This was because they originated from very far (Europe) thus making it difficult for them to have full time and constant supplies. Such put their lives at risk and could sometimes lead to death.

The Christian missionaries faced the problem of stiff contradiction and rivals between European missionaries and traditional Africans. Customs like polygamy, satanic worship, etc were deep rooted into African communities which proved a threat for the missionaries to successfully uproot them.

what were the activities of christian missionaries

Activities of christian missionaries in East Africa

Christian missionaries carried out a number of activities in East Africa. Their activities had various impacts on the social, political and economic conditions of East Africa. The following were the activities carried out by the Christian missionaries in East Africa.

Missionaries carried out evangelization. Here they tried to convert and baptize many people into Christianity from their paganism and Islam.

Christian missionaries carried out linguistic research and came up with new developments in language. Dr Kraft for example translated the Bible into Swahili and wrote a Swahili dictionary and grammar hence making it easy for people to understand the Bible more.

The Christian missionaries built many churches in East Africa many of which are still in existence. They for example set up a church at Zanzibar, Rubaga and Rabai missionary station near Mombasa. .

They carried out exploration work into the discovery of various East African physical features. For example, Kraft was the first European to see Mt. Kenya in 1849 while Rebman was the first to European see Kilimanjaro in 1848.

Christian missionaries set up stations for free rehabilitation services for example in 1868 the Holy Ghost Fathers set up a home for the free slaves at Zanzibar.

Christian missionaries participated in opening up various mission stations. Such mission stations could help in enhancing evangelization into the local population. For example Rebman set up one at Rabai near Mombasa.

Christian missionaries participated in skill development in East Africa. They for example participated in modernizing Agriculture and carpentry by setting up agricultural institutions and carpentry workshops for training.

Christian missionaries were also influential in establishing educational institutions and training efficient class of African clergy (catechists) who were close and more understandable to the local communities. This helped and enhanced the propagation of faith.

Christian missionaries were at times involved in political processes that were beyond spiritual jurisdiction. They for example participated in the overthrow of Kabaka Mwanga of Buganda.

what were the reasons for the successs of missionary work in eastafrica

Reasons for the success of missionary work in East Africa

The missionaries’ success was noted in the economic, political and social fields and these are discussed as follows:

The evils of slave trade made East Africans welcome missionaries as liberators. Their campaign against slave trade won them much support from different tribes in East Africa.

The support they got from some of the local chiefs and kings led to their success. For instance Muteesa I of Buganda and Mirambo of Nyamwezi all gave them protection as well as rights to do their work in their territories.

The earlier explores helped to map out potential areas of East Africa for smooth missionary work. For instance, H.M Stanley had identified Buganda as a hospitable community for the missionaries and they were later welcomed by the Kabaka of Buganda in 1877.

The support missionaries got from their home governments led them to success.  This was inform of finance and physical manpower for instance colonial governments  gave protection to the missionaries whenever they were challenged by local chiefs or other threats. For instance Captain Lugard supported the Protestants in the religious wars in Buganda.

Some missionary groups sought for alliances with African chiefs. Such treaties of friendship made their work easy since the chiefs would call on their subjects to take on the missionary teachings.

The missionaries’ efforts to translate the bible into several local languages helped them succeed for example Kraft translated the New Testament of the Bible into Swahili and wrote a Swahili dictionary and a Grammar book.

The developments that missionaries found in societies like Buganda favored their work. For example, infrastructure around Buganda areas like Namirembe, Lubaga and Kampala in general made missionary work of putting up schools, hospitals and churches easy.

The industrial revolution had provided such technology like the printing press which made printing of bibles and other academic work easy.

Their efforts in life saving services like medical care (Quinine) won them great admiration among the people of East Africa that few were ready to oppose them.

The missionaries’ practical skills enabled them to survive even when their supplies from home delayed. They for instance adopted agriculture as soon as they settled anywhere. This ensured steady supply of food.

They employed locals as porters, interpreters, cooks or security guards hence winning the loyalty of many.

The death of Dr. David Livingstone in 1873 and other earlier missionaries increased the determination by many groups to see missionary work succeed in Africa, and East Africa in particular. E.g. the London news paper wrote after his death, “the work for Africa must hence forth begin in earnest where Livingstone left it off.”

Establishment of resettlement centers for freed slaves e.g. at Bagamoyo and Frere town near Mombasa where skills like carpentry, and agriculture were taught. Such communities thus looked at missionary work as “a life- saving mission”

Teachers' guide

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Revision Questions

what were the reasons for the coming of the christian missionaries to eastafrica

Reasons for the coming of christian missionaries in East Africa

Missionaries came to East Africa for various reasons. These were economic, social, humanitarian and economic in nature as explained below;

The missionaries had the ambition to spread Christianity to the people of East Africa. This would be through preaching and teaching the holy gospel so that many would get converted to Christianity.

They wanted to fight against slave trade in East Africa. Earlier travelers like John Speke and James Grant, H.M. Stanley, Dr. David Livingstone and others had reported about the evils of slave trade in East Africa. Christian missionaries therefore came with an intention to stop it and introduce legitimate trade.

Missionaries wanted settle the freed slaves in East Africa by setting up resettlement centers both in the interior and at the coast for example at Bagamoyo and Frere town near Mombasa.

They wanted to check on the spread of Islam in East Africa from the coast with intentions of converting many to Christianity.

Some missionaries came because they had been invited by certain African chiefs, For example, Muteesa I of Buganda wrote a letter through H.M Stanley   inviting missionaries to Buganda.

They came to establish legitimate trade in East Africa. They, for instance wanted to trade in items like glass, cloths, etc. as Dr. Livingstone told Cambridge University students, “I go back to Africa to make an open pass for commerce and Christianity…..” Similarly, his speech in 1857 emphasized the unity between Christianity and Commerce.

 The missionaries also loved to adventure and explore the interior of East Africa. For example Dr. John Ludwig Kraft of CMS is said to have been the first European to see Mt. Kenya while Johann Redman was the first to see Mt. Kilimanjaro.

They had a mission to clear the way for the colonization of East Africa. The missionaries were tasked by their home governments to preach ideas of love, respect, brotherhood, forgiveness, tolerance and non violence so that when the colonialists come, they would meet less resistance from the East Africans.

It’s also argued that missionaries wanted to “civilize” East Africans. They argued that they came to stop some of the barbaric acts and customs e.g. Female Genital Mutilation among the Kikuyu in Kenya, human sacrifices and the practice of killing twins.

They had interest of reducing tribal conflicts in East Africa. E.g. conflicts between Buganda and Banyoro would be resolved with the coming of the Missionaries.

Early contacts by travelers like Stanley, Speke and Grant, among others encouraged missionaries to come. The information they gave about important places like the source of the Nile, fertile soils, river falls and the climate all attracted the missionaries into East Africa.

The expulsion of some of the missionaries from other parts of Africa led them into East Africa.  For example Johann Ludwig Kraft and Johann Redman are said to have been expelled from Ethiopia around 1842 before they chose to relocate to East Africa.

Teachers' guide

Scheme of work

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Revision Questions

what were the methods used to establish colonial rule in eastafrica

Methods used to establish colonial rule in East Africa.

After the partition and scramble for East Africa, the British and Germans used various methods in East Africa.  However, these methods varied from place to place and from time to time as follows:

The European colonialists used Christian missionaries who paved the   way for colonisation by preaching the message of love and brotherhood which convinced the African that it was a sin to fight against the Europeans.

The signing of treaties and agreements with African chiefs was another method used by Europeans to colonise East Africa for example the 1900 Buganda agreement, the Masai agreement of 1804, and several other agreements.  These assisted the British to establish their rule.

They used African collaborators and opportunists to conquer and annex areas that were resistant to colonialists’ rule for example Apollo Kagwa and Semei Kakungulu.

 The use of explorers or adventurers for example Speke and Stanley who gave exaggerated reports to their home governments based on lakes, minerals climate and mountains, which later attracted colonialists.

Colonialists used the method of divide and rule for example by introducing different religions such as Catholics, Protestants and Moslems etc.  This created disunity against the enemy.

The European colonialists also used the European settlers for example in the Kenya highlands.  These settlers introduced agriculture, which generated funds for their colonial governments.

They built communication lines for example the Uganda Railway which facilitated the movement of the British troops from the coast to the interior.  These were later used to put down rebellions.

They used bribery to make the chiefs and kings of East Africa convinced toward their colonial policies.

The colonialists used the army of occupation to establish their rule in East Africa.  This was effective in the areas of Bunyoro where the British used the army of occupation.  In other words they used military confrontations for example Kabalega of Bunyoro was attacked by the army and the Germans attacked the Hehe.

They built administrative posts and forts for defensive purposes against African resistors.

They used chartered companies to establish colonial rule in East Africa for example IBEACO.

The European colonialists also used gifts to the African leaders like chiefs and kings to persuade their people to accept colonialism.

They used force to suppress resistance all of which maintained law and order.

what were the effects of scramble and partition of eastafrica

The Effects of Scramble and Partition in East Africa

East Africa was divided among the European powers i.e. Britain and Germany.  The British took up Uganda and Kenya which was the northern part of East Africa and Germany took Tanganyika which was the southern part of East Africa.  The effects include the following:

The East African states lost their independence and were subjected to European rule and administration e.g. Kenya and Uganda in were in the hands of the British while Tanzania was controlled by the Germans.

Many African chiefs or kings were killed or sent into exile because of the scramble and partition in East Africa for example Kabalega and Mwanga were exiled while chief Mkwawa of the Hehe was beheaded for resisting German colonial rule in Tanganyika.

They established new systems of administration i.e. indirect rule by the British and direct rule by the Germans.
The Africans were regarded as an inferior group and were forced to provide labour for European plantations and other public works.

There was an increase of Europeans in East Africa for example many of them settled in the Kenya highlands. Thus Africans lost their land and were put into reserve camps e.g. the Masai.

After the partition, new boundaries were drawn and defined in East Africa without respect of the tribes which led to disunity of Africans.

Slave trade was completely wiped out and replaced with legitimate trade in East Africa.
Scramble and partition accelerated the construction and development of infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, roads and bridges.

There was maximum exploitation of resources in East Africa like Ivory, Minerals like Gold, Copper, and Cash crops like Cotton, Coffee, and Sisal etc.

Agriculture was promoted and developed and some of the cash crops which were introduced like cotton and sisal became the export base of East Africa.  They also introduced new methods of farming.

They developed legitimate trade, which enabled them to get raw materials for their industries and they sold their products to East Africans.

They promoted the western culture in East Africa for example the way of dressing, religion, building, eating habits etc.

They undermined African cultures who took up the western culture and goods.  Africans therefore developed an inferiority complex as their traditional customs were despised and they took up the European culture as their way of life.

Taxes were introduced to be paid in form of money for example hut tax and gun tax, which encouraged the use of money.

Western formal education was introduced which replaced informal African education.

Administrative centres/posts were built in East Africa for example in Kampala, Nairobi and Dar-es-Salaam.

Christianity was introduced and spread in East Africa whereby many people were converted from Islam to Christianity.  Various churches were also constructed in East Africa.

Teachers' guide

Scheme of work

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what were the causes of scramble and partition of eastafrica

 Causes of Scramble and partition of East Africa

The main causes of the scramble and partition of East Africa were Economic, Social, Humanitarian, Prestigious, Strategic, and political as follows:

The Europeans wanted to spread their western civilization and this was the western culture.  This included the way of dressing, religion, education and administration since Africa was previously referred to as ‘The Dark Continent’.

They wanted to spread Christianity in East Africa so as to check on the spread of Islam by Arabs.

By the end of the 19th century there was an industrial revolution in Europe and therefore the Europeans were looking for raw-materials to feed their industries e.g. Cotton, coffee, Minerals like Gold, Copper, Diamond, Tin etc and animal products like ivory, hides and Skins.

The Europeans also wanted to obtain market for their manufactured goods like clothes, Guns, Beads, Glass Ware etc.

They wanted to invest their surplus capital in East Africa for high profits.  They invested their capital in mining and farming.

The Europeans were overpopulated and therefore wanted to get new areas in East Africa where they could resettle their surplus population.

They were also interested in East Africa to get territories for prestigious purposes because the more territories a European power had, the more it would be considered powerful e.g. France.

Unemployment in Europe prompted the scramble and partition of East Africa.  Machines replaced human labour thus creating unemployment.  There was a need to acquire colonies where their people could be employed.

The rise of nationalism in Europe caused scramble and partition of East Africa.  European countries developed national pride in superiority over others.  Therefore possession of colonies became a symbol of superiority. For example Germany and Italy were moved by that influence.

Strategic reasons also led to the scramble and partition of East Africa.  Following the construction of the Suez Canal, Britain realised that Egypt could not survive on its own without the Nile; she therefore colonized Sudan and Uganda.

Europeans wanted to pursue their humanitarian motive of stopping slave trade in East Africa, Which was considered an inhuman act.

Some East African tribes were hostile to the early Europeans for example explorers, missionaries and traders. They therefore wanted to protect them in East Africa by taking full control.

what were the effects of the mau mau rebellion


Many people lost their lives which led to depopulation. 100 Europeans and 2000 Pro-British Africans lost their lives. Over 10,000 energetic men were killed and this massive loss of productive labor led to economic decline in Kenya after 1956.

The Kenyans were allowed to participate in the Legislative council in large numbers. In 1958, a constitution (Lennox) was drawn which provided for 15 members of African representation to the council and therefore members like Arap Moi ,Oginga Odinga ,Tom Mboya joined  the legislative council who became influential  in the independence struggle.

Kenyans became involved in various economic activities as equal partners from which they had been excluded .They were allowed to grow profitable crops like coffee, tea, cotton from which they obtained profits and improved their standards of living.

It led to the formation of political parties. Due to the increased constitutional reforms and increased education, African elite emerged and these formed strong political parties which included Kenya African National Union. (KANU) Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU). These parties strongly advocated for Kenyan Independence.

It led to the leaders of the Mau-Mau and many people being arrested and detained in prison for a long time hence their suffering and misery  for example Jomo Kenyatta detained for seven years and Dedan Kimathi.
The activities of the Mau Mau uprising put pressure on the colonial government to the extent that Kenya got her independence in 1963. The colonial government was forced to undertake social, economic as well as political reforms. In 1958, constitutional reforms were adopted which quickened the way to multi-racial form of government in Kenya. For the first time the Africans were included in the local and national politics in Kenya.

The uprising led to the exodus of many white settlers in Kenya and the plans to make Kenya a white man’s country became futile. After 1956, all parts that were racially restricted were made open to all races including the Kenyan highlands.

Farms were destroyed which led to food shortage in the area. There was massive destruction of the food stores, granaries and burning of fields and yet people were confined in camps and reserves. These became congested and over crowded with no land for agriculture. The political instability destabilized the agricultural development in Kenya.
The war was costly to both Britain and Kenya. Britain. For example it’s estimated that the British Government spent over 50million pounds on buying auxiliary weapons and financing the war. In addition there was loss of business and therefore money since trade was paralyzed. Administrative centers, churches, farm machinery worth millions of pounds were also destroyed.

The colonial administration was forced to with draw the foreign labour policy and many Kenyans began looking for jobs in their own country reducing the Asian domination of the commercial and retail sectors.

The removal of Kikuyu leaders gave an opportunity to other leaders to rise up, example, Tom Mboya, Oginga Odinga etc. These worked to sensitize the Africans to fight on and intensify the massive destruction of property that belonged to the British, Asian retail shops were frequently looted. This created economic pain that forced the British subdue to the African cry for independence by promising quick constitutional transformation.
The whites accepted that a multi-racial society was the only solution and each race had to accept peaceful existence with one another. Equality of races was witnessed in schools, agriculture and government especially the ministerial ranks.  The exclusive white occupation and settlement of Kenya highlands was abolished. In this respect the Mau Mau achieved the objective of its leaders i.e. Equal treatment of races.
Mau Mau rebellion affected the settlement patterns of the kikuyu:  Small and protected villages were created by the government as a means of separating civilians from guerillas (fighters).A total of 80,000 Kikuyu men, women and children were confined in detention camps. The 1952 state of emergency forced the kikuyu to live in the protected villages together instead of the formerly scattered settlement. This later enabled easy provision of schools, health services, and market services to the people.
It led to the release of political prisoners .For instance in August 1961 Mzee Jomo Kenyatta was released, elected to Legislative Assembly and made president of Kenya African  National Union (KANU).Similarly, 173 prisoners who were released by rebels during the height of the Mau Mau uprising.

Increased Africanisation of Kenya’s educational system, Africans were allowed to access good quality education similar to that of the white settlers. Many were admitted in public schools, more schools for the African children were constructed even in the rural areas. Further still African children were given priority on scholarship awarded by the government which never happened before.

what were the causes of the mau mau rebellion?


It was due to unemployment of the ex-soldiers who had been promised jobs after the World War II, but instead were made porters on European-estates. Similarly, people were retrenched, traders pushed out to business by Asian retail trade monopoly and European settlers. Therefore by 1952 the young energetic African went to the forests of Abadare and Mountain Kenya Rift Valley and waged a violent offensive against the British hoping for a change.

Africans wanted their land especially the Kikuyu who had been displaced from the fertile Kenya highlands. The European had used the support of the colonial government to take away land including the ancestral land to which they attached great value. Many were pushed into reserves and camps were they suffered from congestion, starvation and diseases like typhoid, cholera.

It was a reaction against the Kipande system. This was a method of identity cards imposed on Africans to restrict them from unnecessary movements. The kipande system required moving with a ‘PASS’ which was big a metallic card carried in the neck of the African.
The introduction of racial discrimination in Kenya. This was discrimination according to colour. The Europeans equated the black colour with low intelligence, uncivilized, barbaric and a backward race. All the best hotels, restaurants, schools, recreational centres and most fertile soils in Kenya were reserved for the whites only.

Africans were fed up of heavy and harsh taxation by the Europeans. Failure to pay tax was punishable by taking away the land or even imprisonment. So the Africans were forced to go and work under harsh condition and for long hours, yet poorly paid. This forced them to join the uprising.

The dominance of the economy by the Asian and white settlers. The Africans were not allowed to take part in meaningful business, were not given positive consideration in awarding jobs. The whites upheld the view that blacks were only fit to work as Shamba boys on the colonial farms or maids in the European and Asian homes. To this end, the Africans revolted so as to change the situation for the better.

They also wanted to be exposed to the social services e.g. education. The white settlers feared the educated Africans for losing their white color jobs in the government as well as losing unskilled African labour on their farms. In this respect they discouraged African education. In so doing, they worked to frustrate the African efforts to set up schools even the few educated Africans were not employed in the civil service. So these unemployed Africans fought for the preservation of their right as an educated class.

Africans feared a gradual destruction of their culture by the whites e.g. the missionaries were totally against the circumcision of women among the Kikuyu and the traditional view of twins.

Africans wanted a fair share in the administration of their country (Parliament). For a long time many Kenyans were excluded from decision making and political participation the whites and Asians in the Legislative Council did not represent their interests.

The return of Jomo Kenyatta in the 1950s’ after his studies in Europe, he came back with a wider vision in politics after participating in various conferences(Manchester conference of 1945) therefore this made enabled him convince the Kenyans about their rights and they therefore united and rebelled.

The role of educated Kenyans ;this group of people by nature of their education became aware of their rights as citizens of Kenya and it is along that they started campaigns of educating the people about their place in society. This prompted them to rebel against the whites.
The colonial policy discouraged Africans from growing cash crops like coffee, tea, cotton, pyrethrum for fear of competition with the Africans. They feared that they would grow rich and challenge the colonial administration. This led to too much poverty so they joined the rebellion hoping to find a solution.

Forced labour on white man’s plantations led to Mau Mau: Africans were obliged by colonial law to offer labour on the plantation this was to be done forcefully with out offering any payments. This kind of new slavery inspired the occurrence of the Mau Mau rebellion as the first violent revolt against the British after World War II.

Influence of the Second World War many Kenyans who participated in this war   discovered the weakness of the white man and the loopholes in their systems of administration. These included General China, Didan Kimathi among others. These people had acquired good military skills, enjoyed high standards of living, realized that some Africans were braver then some whites. These joined together with the unemployed Kenyans with a hope of gaining their Independence.

Thursday, 15 January 2015

what was the major obstacle toward independence in uganda

Major obstacles in the struggle for Uganda’s independence

The struggle for Uganda’s independence and generally the growth of African nationalism in Uganda was delayed/ disturbed by a number of factors.

The high levels of illiteracy in Uganda affected the struggle. The few educated people Uganda had by 1945- 50 were mainly centered around Buganda only. This left the rest of the regions off the struggle for so many years.

Lack of a common language in Uganda also disturbed the struggle for independence. Luganda ,Acholi and other languages were used by different groups to push for their tribal interests. This promoted the divide and rule policy of the colonialists

Trade Union activities were limited in Uganda. The restrictions by colonialists had discouraged formation of trade unions which would have helped in the demand for independence.

The limitations on the press delayed the struggle. The few news papers such as “Uganda Eyogera” were in Luganda hence only read by Baganda. This isolated the other Ugandan’s from ideas in the paper.

Some of the elites were puppets of the British colonial government and hence could not join political paties like UNC, UPC etc.

The delay to establish contacts between nationalists in Uganda and outside Africa also delayed the struggle. Very few Ugandans had traveled to democratic states like USA to borrow the spirit of freedom and hence few would challenge colonialism as an abuse of human rights.

The formation of political parties too delayed independence. Active party politics did not come until after 1950.

Religious divisions between Protestants and Catholics also affected the struggle. Parties never combined efforts because of the differences in religion.

The common hatred towards the Baganda by nationalist from other parts prevented a united stand against colonialism. The fact that the British had used Baganda chiefs like Semei Kakungulu to speed colonial rule to the East made Baganda a target by others.

The secessionist attempts by Buganda delayed the struggle. With much of the infrastructure, the attempt to break off the rest of Uganda was unacceptable by other nationalist hence preventing a common front against colonial rule.

There were also ideological differences even within the different political parties. Where the DP leaders had capitalist sentiments, UNC and UPC were pro- socialist. They thus never combined efforts against the British because of such differences.

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what are the factors that facilitated the attainment of independence in uganda

Factors which facilitated the attainment of independence in Uganda.

Many factors worked in favour of the rise and growth of nationalism in Uganda. It’s these factors that eventually led to the early independence of Uganda by 1962. They included:

The impact of the Second World War (1939-1945) led to Uganda’s independence. Ex – soldiers came back with military skills and militant ideas leading to violent action like burning of white owned houses.

 The rise of labour party into power in Britain in 1945 also forvoured Ugandan’s struggle for independence. This led to the appointment of some Ugandans on the Legico.

The Manchester Conference of 1945 helped nationalism in Uganda. Its call for use for use of all means including force to fight for independence led to use of strikes in demanding for independence.

Western education (especially through missionary schools) trained leaders for the independence movement. Eg Musazi, M. Obote , Mayanja Abu

The roads, railway line and other form of infrastructure proved by the colonial administration helped the struggle. Nationalists like Obote used these to traverse the whole of Uganda for support.

The formation of political parties led to independence. Parties like KY, UPC, DP UNC mobilized the masses in the demand for independence.

The continued exploitation by Asians and whites of Uganda’s resources like copper in Kilembe provoked anger among Ugandans.

The development of urban centers such as Jinja, Kampala favored nationalism in Uganda. These became bleeding grounds for political activities like rallies and demonstrations.

Asian countries like India which had already got independence (1947) helped Uganda too. Some Ugandan nationalist like Abu Mayanja, Bidandi Sali Studied in India or attended conferences there.

The 1952 revolution in Egypt also influenced nationalism in Uganda Nasser , the new president of Egypt assisted Ugandans like Ignatius Musaazi of UNC (Uganda National Congress)

The United Nations organization also put pressure on British to decolonize even Uganda.

The British policy of favoring Buganda more than the rest of Uganda. This made the rest of Ugandan’s unite against the Baganda first and finally the colonialists too.

Ghana’s early independence in 1957 also inspired strong demand for independence in 1957 also inspired strong demand for independence in Uganda too.

what was the role played by political parties towards the independence of uganda

Political parties in Uganda after 1950.

A number of political parties were formed or old ones revised after 1950. These were to lead the way towards Ugandan’s independence by 1962. Such parties included

Uganda National Congress (UNC) 1952.

Democratic party(DP)1954

The Progress Party (PP) 1955

United Congress Party(UCP) 1957

Uganda National Movement (UNM) 1959

Uganda People’s Union (UPU) 1958

Uganda People’s Congress (UPC) 1960

The Kabaka Yekka (KY) 1962.

Role played by political parties in the struggle for Uganda’s independence.

Parties trained leaders who helped to mobilize the masses in the demand for independence.

They sensitized and educated Ugandans on the politics in the country. This aroused political awareness in Uganda.

Called for independence of Uganda raising Massive support to the independence movement.

Organized peaceful demonstrations, against colonial policies like taxation , cash crop growing (forced) etc.

Parties sent representatives in the pre- independence negotiations and last minutes constitutional preparations.

Mobilized funds to finance political activities including campaigns for the pre- independence elections.

Party slogans and songs became a key symbol of attraction for large gatherings. This made flow of information about the struggle very easy.

Recruited the youths into active party service thus training a generation that was to lead Uganda to independence such as Mayanja Nkangi , Ignatius Musaazi .etc.

Violent action organized by the various parties pressurised the colonialists to grant independence. Boycotts, attacks on foreigners and torching (burning) houses all speeded up the process to decolonize Uganda.

what were the effects of the kabaka crisis

Effects of the 1953 Kabaka crisis.

Created a sense of unity among the Baganda as they combined efforts to demand for the return and restoration of Kabaka Mutesa II.

Led to the signing of the Namirembe agreement. This cleared way for the return of the Kabaka while also reducing the king’s powers more.

Demonstrations were carried out in Buganda areas like Nakulabye. Men vowed never to shave off until their king in back.

The colonial government appointed more Africans to the colonial administration.

Encouraged the growth of nationalism in the whole of Uganda. The crisis had showed Ugandans the determination of colonialists to stay on hence more demands for independence.

Led to formation of new political parties which began by demanding of the return of Kabaka and finally for independence.

The crisis and the Namirembe agreement affected the position of the Kabaka. His reduced powers as we approached independence laid ground for his eventual over throw in the 1966 crisis with Obote .M.

The idea of East African Federation was completely ruled out after the crisis.

Increased the popularity of the Kabaka especially among the Baganda as well as other areas of Uganda.

what were the causes of the kabaka crisis

Between 1945 and 1949, several protests and uprisings were organized especially in Uganda’s towns like Kampala. These were mainly in opposition to the monopoly of Asians in the cash crop trade, land alienation among other grievances.
Such action resulted into formation of earlier political associations such:-

Bataka party (1946)

Abaganda  Abakopi and Uganda African Farmers’ Union (1947)

Buganda African Motors Driver Union(BANU)

Although all these parties were silenced one by one by the colonialists, and their leaders arrested, the message of resistance and desire for independence had been expressed already.

The Kabaka crisis of 1953 -55.

Following the British introduction of the idea of the East African Federation Kabaka Mutesa II decided to mobilize the Baganda to reject the Federation. He also went ahead to demand for the independence of Buganda alone.
This prompted the British colonial governor Andrew Cohen to deport him into Britain on the 30 Nov 1953.

Causes of the crisis

The idea of the East African federation led to the crisis. The Baganda feared that they might loose their land in the federation as had happened in Kenya.

Mutesa I‘s failure to cooperate with the colonial administrators encouraged the crisis. According to the 1900 agreement, the Kabaka was expected to work (cooperate) with the colonial administration in areas of tax collection, law and order e.t.c.

Mutesa’s demand for Buganda’s independence also led to the crisis.

Kabaka Mutesa’s desire to adjust some terms of the Buganda agreement led to the crisis. Kabaka hated the clauses that limited his authority in Buganda.

The rising sense of superiority among the Baganda encouraged the crisis under Mutesa I. Buganda increasingly proud of themselves that decided to reduce cooperation with the colonialist.

Withdraw of support from the Kabaka by the Lukiiko also encouraged the crisis.

The transfer by the colonial governor of the nomination of Buganda’s representatives to the Legico (Legislative council). This decision to give powers to the Lukiiko to nominate representative to the legico provoked Mutesa II much.

The religious conflicts with in Buganda also increased the tension. The Catholics conflicted with the Protestants and Christians combined against Muslims. This drew in the colonial administration to take sides.

The new political parties such as Uganda National congress (1952) violently opposed the East Africa Federation idea. This further promoted the government to exile the king.

what were the reasons for the eary independence for tanzania

Reasons for Tanganyika’s early independence
1.The formation of political clubs/ associations such as Tanganyika African  
   Association (TAA), Tanganyika African National Union ( TANU).

2.The spirit of unity that came as a result of the existence of an all embracing Political party- TANU.

3.The personality of the colonial governors favored Tanzania’s early independence. Governor Richard Turnbull for example encouraged preparations for Tanzania’s Independence.

4.The United Nations, supervised preparations for independence in Tanganyika through its Trusteeship Council.

5.Racial or tribal differences were greatly limited in Tanganyika unlike in both Uganda and Kenya. This gave Tanganyikans a united stand in the call for independence.

6.Political activities were not much restricted by the authority in Tanganyika as was in Kenya and Uganda. Party activities for instance would be left free.

7.Tanganyika’s adoption of Kiswahili as a common language promoted unity in the call for independence.

8.The able leadership of men like Julius Nyerere who mobilised all Tanganyika’s without discriminating based on race.

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what were the contribution of dr julius nyerere to the struggle for tanzaniaz independence

Contribution Of Dr. Julius Nyerere To The Struggle For Tanzania’s Independence

Julius Kambarage Nyerere was born in 1922 at Butiaba near the lake Victoria shores. His father was a village chief. He attended a Roman Catholic primary school before joining the government secondary at Tabora and diploma in Education at Makerere College in Uganda before finally attaining university education in universities outside Africa including Edinburgh University in Scotland.

Nyerere taught in several schools in Tanzania between 1945 and 1952. This spread literacy, which was needed in the struggle for independence.

He joined TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) in 1955 where he seriously campaigned for Tanganyika’s independence.

He addressed the U.N.O’s (United Nations Organization) trusteeship council in New York, where he expressed Tanganyika’s wish for independence.

Organized TANU to elect a representative to the Legislative council (LEGCO).

Nyerere became Tanganyika’s first prime minister in 1961 when Tanzania gained her independence.

He encouraged the unity between Tanganyika and Zanzibar in 1964. This resulted into the establishing of the republic of Tanzania.

Emphasized Swahili language to be the common language Tanzanians were to use. This united them in the demand for independence.

Nyerere advocated for peaceful means in the struggle for Tanzania independence. This scared Tanzania of the destruction that happened to states that used violence to achieve independence.

Nyerere as president of Tanganyika African Association transformed (IAA) into TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) in 1954.

 Nyerere called for adult voting rights voting rights in Tanganyika other than the earlier restriction on to only those who were earning 75 pounds per year or those who were literate.

Nyerere assured the Asians, whites and other foreigners in Tanganyika that they had a future in Tanganyika. This won some foreigners sympathy towards the independence movement.

Brought TANU close to the UN Trusteeship Council. It’s this that was later to put pressure on Britain to decolonize Tanganyika.

Nyerere stood down after being elected to the Legico (Legislative Council) complaining of lack of progress in the move to Tanganyika’s independence.

what are the factors that led to the rise and growth of african nationalism in east africa


The colonial policies led to the growth of African nationalism in East Africa. Evils of colonialism such as forced labor, over taxation, land alienation, racial discrimination and forced growing of cash crops etc. made the people of East Africa hate the colonial masters.

Western education led to the rise and growth of African nationalism. The few Africans who went to schools like King’s college Budo acquired a common language – English. This made communication very easy between the nationalists of different races.

The Second World War also encouraged African nationalism. This war which started in 1939 and ended in 1945 trained some East Africans on how to use guns,  exposed them to military weakness of the whites and also exposed Africans to ideas of democracy from American soldiers.

The rise of two new super powers in the world promoted African nationalism. USA and USSR started supporting political parties like UPC, TANU and KANU struggling for independence.

The formation of the United Nations in 1945 favored African nationalism. UNO put pressure on Britain to grant independence to Tanganyika, Uganda and finally to Kenya.

The Atlantic charter of 1941 helped nationalism in East Africa. W. Churchill (Britain) and F. Roosevelt (USA) called for the respect of people’s rights to choose a government of their will. This increased desire for independence in East Africa.

The 1945 Manchester Pan African conference helped African nationalism. Delegates including Nkrumah etc called for states to use all means to fight against colonialism.

The formation of political parties also encouraged nationalism in East Africa. Parties like KANU, KADU (KENYA) TANU (TZ) UNC UPC, DP, and KY (Uganda) mobilized the people in demanding for independence.

The Mau Mau uprising of 1952 – 56 in Kenya encouraged nationalism in East Africa. The courage of the Kikuyu and other fighters against the British had attracted more demand for independence even in Tanzania and Uganda.

The rise of able and charismatic leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta , Julius Nyerere, Milton Obote, Abu Mayanja and others. These led the masses in popular demonstrations and rallies demanding for independence

 The development of the press

Emergence urban centers such as Kampala, Nairobi, Entebe etc.

what were the charateristics of african nationalism in east africa.

Characteristics of African Nationalism in East Africa

Nationalism in East Africa was characterized by a number of features which included:-

It was characterized by rise of political parties. These included Uganda National Congress (which later became- Uganda Peoples’ Congress (U.P.C), Democratic Party (DP)  and Kabaka Yekka (KY)  all in Uganda, Tanganyika African National Union (TANU in Tanganyika , KADU ( Kenya African Democratic Union) as well as KANU ( Kenya African National Union) in Kenya, among others.

Nationalism in East Africa was led by the few educated Africans such as Julius Nyerere, Milton Obote, Mayanja Nkangi, Jomo Kenyatta, Tom Mboya, and others.

Most of the nationalist activities were centered in towns like Nairobi, Mombasa, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kampala and Entebe.

Violent groups were formed to engage the colonialists by force. The most important of these was Mau Mau in Kenya ( 1952-1956)

There were constant arrests and detention of nationalists’ leaders. Kenyatta was imprisoned in 1953, Obote forced out of Makerere College, Nyerere and many others too were detained several times.

Nationalism in East Africa had some Africans supporting the whites and hence opposed to ideas like granting independence to Buganda.

The cold war conflict remained clear among the East African nationalists. Nyerere for instance adopted the socialist ideology through his popular Ujamaa policy.

The press became a key tool of nationalism in East Africa. News papers like MUNNO, Ngabo ( Uganda), radio stations, magazines were used in the spread of nationalist ideas.

Negotiations also characterized African nationalism in east Africa. Constitutional reforms were carried out such as the new constitutions in Kenya like the Lennox-Boyd constitution.

Trade unions were formed to call for workers rights. For example the Young Kikuyu Association in Kenya in 1921

what were the charateristics of african nationalism in east africa.

Characteristics of African Nationalism in East Africa

Nationalism in East Africa was characterized by a number of features which included:-

It was characterized by rise of political parties. These included Uganda National Congress (which later became- Uganda Peoples’ Congress (U.P.C), Democratic Party (DP)  and Kabaka Yekka (KY)  all in Uganda, Tanganyika African National Union (TANU in Tanganyika , KADU ( Kenya African Democratic Union) as well as KANU ( Kenya African National Union) in Kenya, among others.

Nationalism in East Africa was led by the few educated Africans such as Julius Nyerere, Milton Obote, Mayanja Nkangi, Jomo Kenyatta, Tom Mboya, and others.

Most of the nationalist activities were centered in towns like Nairobi, Mombasa, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Kampala and Entebe.

Violent groups were formed to engage the colonialists by force. The most important of these was Mau Mau in Kenya ( 1952-1956)

There were constant arrests and detention of nationalists’ leaders. Kenyatta was imprisoned in 1953, Obote forced out of Makerere College, Nyerere and many others too were detained several times.

Nationalism in East Africa had some Africans supporting the whites and hence opposed to ideas like granting independence to Buganda.

The cold war conflict remained clear among the East African nationalists. Nyerere for instance adopted the socialist ideology through his popular Ujamaa policy.

The press became a key tool of nationalism in East Africa. News papers like MUNNO, Ngabo ( Uganda), radio stations, magazines were used in the spread of nationalist ideas.

Negotiations also characterized African nationalism in east Africa. Constitutional reforms were carried out such as the new constitutions in Kenya like the Lennox-Boyd constitution.

Trade unions were formed to call for workers rights. For example the Young Kikuyu Association in Kenya in 1921

what were the effects of abolition of slave trade in east africa

Effects of abolition of slave trade

The suppression of slave trade led to loss of independence that is to say, it confirmed among the Arabs and Swahilis that the Sultan had lost independence over the East  African coast, and that he was now a British puppet .

The suppression of slave trade led to development and growth of legitimate trade which provided equally profitable business to both Europeans and African traders. Many ship owners diverted   their ships from transporting slaves to transporting raw cotton and raw sugar from Brazil and America.

It accelerated the coming of European missionaries to East Africa who emphasized peace and obedience thus the later European colonization of East Africa.

Disintegration of the sultan Empire. This is because it loosened the economic and  political control which the sultan had over the East African nations .His empire in E.A. therefore began to crumble .This gave opportunity to other ambitious leaders like Tippu-Tip to create an independent state in Manyema ,where he began selling his ivory and slaves to the Belgians in Zaire.

The abolition of slave trade was a catalyst to the partition of East Africa where by Britain took over Kenya, Zanzibar and Uganda and Germany took over Tanganyika.

Slave trade markets were also closed foe example Zanzibar in 1873 following the frere treaty signed between Sultan Bargash and Bantle Frere.

Islam became unpopular as many converted to Christianity.

African societies regained their respect and strength as they were no longer sold off as commodities.

what were the steps taken to abolish slave trade in east africa

Steps in the abolition of slave trade

The movement to abolish slave trade started in Britain with the formation of Anti-slavery  movement. The British government abolished the slave trade through anti slave laws (Legislation), treaties and use of force.
The Anti – slavery movement was led by Granville sharp, other members were Thomas  Clarkson, William Wilberforce and others.

 The first step was taken in 1772 when slavery was declared illegal and abolished in Britain. The humanitarians secured judgment against slavery from the British court.

 In 1807, British parliament outlawed slave trade for British subjects.

1817 British negotiated the “reciprocal search treaties” with Spain and Portugal.

Equipment treaties signed with Spain 1835 Portugal 1842 and America 1862.

In E. Africa in 1822 Moresby treaty was signed between Captain Moresby and Sultan Seyyid Said it forbade the shipping of slaves outside the sultan’s territories. British ships were authorized to stop and search suspected Arab slave-carrying dhows.

In 1845, Hamerton treaty was signed between Colonel Hamerton and Sultan  Seyyid Said. It forbade the shipping of slaves outside the Sultan‘s East African possessions, i.e, beyond Brava to the north.  

 In 1871 the British set up a parliamentary commission of inquiry to investigate and report on slave trade in E. Africa.

In 1872 Sir Bartle Frere persuaded Sultan Barghash to stop slave trade but not much was achieved.

On 5th March 1873, the Sultan passed a decree prohibiting the export of slaves from main land and closing of slave market at Zanzibar. Zanzibar slave market was to be closed within 24 hours.

1876 the Sultan decreed that no slaves were to be transported overland.
1897 decree left slaves to claim their freedom themselves

1907 ,slavery was abolished entirely in Zanzibar and Pemba.

In 1927, slavery ended in Tanganyika when Britain took over from Germany after the 2nd world war.

what were the factors that led to the abolition of slave trade

Factors that led to the abolition of slave trade

It  was the British government that began the abolition  of the slave trade during the years,1822 -  1826 . This was because of the pressure by various groups based on different  factors;

Rise of humanitarians  in Europe such as Christians and scholars condemned it on moral grounds. The missionaries wanted it to be stopped because they wanted good conditions for the spread of Christianity. The formation of the humanitarian movements in England aimed at stopping all kinds of cruelty including slave trade, flogging of soldiers and child labour.

Industrialization in Britain was one of the main forces behind the abolition .E.g. Britain industrialists urged its abolition because they wanted Africans to be left in Africa so that Africa can be a source of raw materials for their industries, market for European manufactured goods and a place for new investment of surplus capital.

Formation of Anti-slavery movement and the abolitionist movement in 1787. Its chairman was Granville Sharp and others like Thomas Clarkson, William Wilberforce who gathered facts and stories about the brutality of slave trade and slavery to arouse public opinion in Britain.

Religious revival in Europe, Anglicans preached and condemned slave trade as being opposed to laws of God and humanity. Catholic popes also protested against the trade and prohibited it. In 1774, many religious leaders served as examples when they liberated their slaves in England.

The French revolution of 1789 and the American revolution of 1776 emphasized liberty, equality and fraternity(brotherhood) of all human beings. As a result, people began to question whether anyone had a right to deprive fellow man of his liberty when he had done wrong.  
The British desire to protect their national interests, British planters wanted  slave trade stopped to avoid competition with other European planters .This is because other planters were producing cheaper sugar ,British sugar accumulated hence the need to stop over production.

The rise of men with new ideas e.g. Prof. Adam Smith(challenged the economic arguments which were the basis of slave trade when he argued convincingly that hired labour is cheaper and more productive than slave labour, Rousseau spread the idea of personal liberty and equality of all men.

Slaves had become less profitable and yet had led to over population in Europe.

Influential abolitionists like William Wilberforce( a British member of parliament ) urged the British government to legislate against the slave trade in her colonies.

The ship owners stopped transporting slaves from Africa and began transporting raw materials directly from Africa and America to Europe ,which led to a decline in slave trade.

what were the reasons why it was difficult to stop slave trade

Reasons why it was difficult to stop slave trade

Slavery existed before in Africa societies that is to say, domestic slavery and internal slave trade, which provided a favourable situation for continuation of the lucrative  slave trade.

The Abolition movement which had begun in Britain and her overseas territory first took effect in West Africa. The decline in west African trade encouraged the expansion of trade in East Africa especially with America and West Indies.

Slave trade was difficult to stop because of division of African tribes against each other .This meant that African tribes would find it difficult to unite together and resist the slave traders, who raided their societies using organised bands of men.

Disregard of human life ,many African rulers tended to put less value for the lives of their subjects  whom they ruled for example quite often, a ruler of a tribe would easily order his warriors to attack the villages  of his subjects and seize their property ,kill some of them .  

Active participation and willing cooperation of African chiefs and coastal traders who were making a lot of profits made the slave trade last for so long.

Many European countries depended on the products of slave labour in West Indies and America for example, British industries depended on raw sugar, raw cotton and unprocessed minerals from America which she was not willing to loose.

European slave merchants and Africans involved in the trade were blinded by the huge profits made from the trade.

There was smuggling of slaves outside the forbidden areas. Slave traders would pretend to sail northwards when sighted by British patrol ships but would change course after British navy ships had disappeared.

Other European countries refused to co-operate with Britain to end slave trade because they had not yet become industrialized, and therefore they still benefited from it for example Portugal and Spain.

The only economic alternative of slave trade was Agriculture which was not reliable compared to the booming slave trade.

The anti slavery campaign was too expensive for Britain alone to compensate slave owners.

Stopping slave trade in the interior was difficult  because Arabs  were in control  of large areas.

The East African coastline was long which delayed the anti-slavery group penetration in the interior.

Due to the tropical climate, most British personnel were affected by malaria which hindered the stopping of Slave trade.

Seyyid Said and Bargash were always unwilling to end slave trade at once due to fear of losing revenue and risk of rebellion by Arabs who found it profitable.

The anti-slavery group was small compared to the East African Coast.

European powers continued with slave trade, they shipped the slaves cargos in to ships bearing American Flags.
Effects/Impact of slave trade on people of E. Africa.

Positive effects

New foods were introduced through trade routes like maize, pawpaws, rice, groundnuts both at the coast and in the interior.

Plantation farming increased in some areas, especially the clove plantations were slaves worked.

The interior was opened to the outside world this later encouraged the coming of European missionaries. Many European Christian missionaries came to East Africa to preach against slave trade and to campaign for its abolition.

The trade routes became permanent routes and inland roads which led to growth of communication networks.

Swahili was introduced in land and is now being widely spoken in Tanzania , Kenya ,Uganda and Eastern Congo.

Islam as a religion was introduced by Arabs and it  spread , especially in Yao land and in Buganda land.

A new race called Swahili was formed through intermarriages between Arabs and some Africans.

There was growth of Arab towns such as Tabora and Ujiji inland.

There was emergence of dynamic leaders such as Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Slave trade strengthened the large and powerful states, which could easily get access to guns at the expense of small ones.

Slave trade led to a situation whereby power became centralised and no longer with the small, local authority (segimentary societies) mainly to enable African chiefs directly control slave trade.

Slave trade encouraged large-scale trade whereby contact was established between the trade masters and indigenous/local population.

Africans were dispersed to other parts of the world e.g Arabia, America and West Indies. In Africa, Sierra-Leone and Liberia were founded to accommodate former slaves from Europe and America.
Negative effects

African population was reduced, people who would have been great leaders and empire builders were killed. It is estimated that over 15 to 30 million people were solded in to slavery while other millions died in the process being transported.

Slave trade brought misery, suffering and lowered the quality of people in East Africa this is because they were reduced to ‘commodities’ which could be bought and sold on land.

Villages and families were destroyed and broken up by slave raiders and never to be reunited this later resulted in to loss of identity.

Diseases broke out among the overcrowded slaves for example the Spaniards introduced Syphilis and soon it spread to other traders.

Slave trade led to displacement of people and many became homeless and destitute many and stayed in Europe with no identity.

Economic activities such as farming were disrupted. This is because the young and able craftsmen, traders and farmers were carried off, causing economic stagnation as the economic workforce depleted.

Progress slowed down, which resulted in famine, poverty and destitution and helplessness.

There was a decline in production of traditional goods such as coffee, beans, bark cloth and iron which greatly hindered the cash economy.

There was a decline in African industries which also faced a lot of  competition from imported manufactured goods for example the Bark cloth and iron working industries.

Guns were introduced into the interior which caused a lot of insecurity and increased incidences of wars for territorial expansion.

Clans and tribal units, languages were broken and inter-tribal peace was disturbed for example swahili language replaced the traditional languages in the interior.

Teachers' guide

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Story of Africa

Slave trade

how were slaves obtained in slave trade in east africa

The middlemen involved were;

Arab Swahili traders

African chiefs.

Ways of obtaining slaves

Selling of domestic slaves in exchange for goods like beads, guns, glass etc

Selling of criminals, debtors and social misfits in society by the local chiefs to the Arab slave traders.

Prisoners of war could be sold off.

Porters were sometimes kidnapped, transported and sold off to the Arab traders.

Raiding villages, this would begin at night with gun shoots and people would scatter consequently leading to their capture.

Through inter tribal wars many Africans become destitutes and these would be captured by the slave traders.

Tax offenders were sold off by the African chiefs.

They were also captured through ambushes during hunting, travelling and gardening.

Slaves would be acquired from the main slave trade market in Zanzibar.

Other Africans are also said to have gone voluntarily in anticipation of great wonders and benefits from the Arab Swahili traders.

describe the organisation of slave trade in east africa

Main peoples involved:

Arab traders

European merchants

African chiefs e.g. Mirambo and Nyungu yamawe.

The Nyamwezi

The Akamba

The Yao




The Nyamwezi

They were called Nyamwezi (people of the moon) because they came from the West direction in which the new moon is first seen. Their involvement  in slave trade was partly caused by the demand for slaves in the interior. They dealt in ivory,copper,slaves and wax they wanted to acquire commodities like glass, spices, clothes ,mirrors, guns in exchange for slaves.


The Role of chief Mirambo

Mirambo was born around 1830 AD and spent part of his life as a captive of the Tuta Ngoni in Bugoma. He organized a strong army of highly paid mercenaries (ruga ruga) who were the basis of his power.

He established friendly relations with Kabaka Mutesa of Buganda with whom they trade in salt, slaves, iron implements grains and livestock.

He acquired guns from Arab and Swahili traders and this helped him during his empire building process.

He controlled major trade routed in his territory by imposing taxes on traders passing through his area.

Between 1860-1870, Mirambo carried out extensive conquests Vinza and Tongwe and recruited some abled men for his army and sold others in slavery.

Unfortunately, when Mirambo died in 1884, his empire also collapsed because it lacked a military leader as powerful and courageous as him.

Nyungu Yamawe

The Role of Nyungu Yamawe

The name Nyungu Yamawe was a praise name meaning “Pot of stones” Nyungu was a prince of the Nyungu Yembe ruling family but failed in 1865 after the Arabs had beheaded the Chief Mnwasele.

After the Arabs had beheaded the chief of Nyungu ya mawe was terrified and ran away in 1865 and established himself at Kiwele south from where they systematically attacked and defeated the people of the regions.

His society was strategically located such that he controlled all trading activities along the routes. From the East African coast to Utipa,   Tanganyika and other trading activities. This economic progress contributed to his political development.

He conquered people and those who tried to oppose him were punished severely and others sold off as slaves.

Unlike Mirambo ‘s empire that collapsed immediately, Nyungu yamawe ‘s empire went on for many years after his death mainly because of economic organisation and efficient political system he had created.

Nyungu’s rulers took over the collection of ivory from the conquered clients and sent it to him at Kiwele.

He formed a strong centralize administration with his own rulers (vatwale) placed over conquered chiefdoms directly responsible for him.

The Akamba

The role of Akamba

These lived in southern Kenya highlands. Their ancestors lived here as hunters and shifting agriculture when they grew rich, some Kamba communities bought slaves from the coast to do their farming.

The Yao

The role of Yao

The Yao were the most active East African slave traders. This was mainly because of the growing demand for slaves at the coast and also the nature of the Yao society. It was the custom for ambitious Yao rulers to increase their power not just by capturing territories but by raiding their neighbours for slaves who then became their personal followers.


The role of Baganda

These lived in the central region of Uganda. Their importance was significant in the commercial life of the region; they traded in Bark cloth, ivory and slaves. They were friendly to Arabs who supplied them with guns that they used to protect and expand their Kingdom.


The role of Khartoumers

These were Egyptians and Sudanese traders who dealt in ivory and slaves. They were semi-official representatives of the Egyptian government with several hundred armed men in their pay.


what were the reasons for the rise of slave trade in east africa

Reasons for the rise of slave trade

During the second half of the 18th century, France opened up larger sugar plantations on the islands of Reunion, Mauritius and in the Indian Ocean. African slaves were thus recruited from East Africa to go and work in those plantations.

Africans were considered physically fit to work in harsh climatic conditions compared to the native red Indians and Europeans. This greatly increased the demand for the indigenous people(slaves).

The increased demand for sugar and cotton in Europe led to their increase in price and therefore more labour (slaves) was needed in the British colonies of West Indies and America.
Strong desire for European goods by African chiefs like Mirambo and Nyungu ya Mawe forced them to acquire slaves in exchange for  manufactured goods such as brass, metal ware, cotton cloth, beads, spirits such as whisky, guns and gun powder.
The existence and recognition of slavery in East Africa societies. Domestic and child slavery already existed therefore Africans were willing to exchange slaves for European goods.

The huge profits enjoyed by middlemen like Arab Swahilli traders encouraged the traders to get deeply involved in the trade.

The suitable winds and currents (monsoon winds) which eased transportation for slave traders greatly contributed to the rise of slave trade.

The Legalization of slave trade in 1802 by Napoleon 1 of France increased the demand for slaves in all French Colonies.

The increased number of criminals, war captives, destitutes forced African chiefs to sell them off as slaves.

The Oman Arabs contributed to the rise in the demand for slaves. This is because they acted as middlemen between the African Swahili people,the Portuguese and French traders. They therefore worked very hard to get slaves in order to obtain revenue from them.

The invention of Spanish mines in West indices increased slave demands to work in the mines.

The exodus of slaves from East Africa to Northeast Africa, Arabia and Persia contributed to the increase in the demand for slaves. It led to an enormous number of slaves obtained from East Africa being transported to other countries.

The movement of Seyyid Said’s capital to Zanzibar led to an increase in slave trade. This is because when Seyyid said settled in Zanzibar in 1840, he embarked on strong plans to open up slave trade routes to the interior of East Africa. This boosted slave trade, whereby the number of slaves being sold at the slave market in Zanzibar annually by that time, reached between 40000 and 45000 thousand slaves.

The outbreak of diseases like Nagana led to an increase in slave trade. This is because the beasts of burden (i.e. camels, donkeys, etc) could not be taken on many of the caravan routes. It therefore necessitated people themselves to be involved in the transportation of the trade goods and ivory. Such people included porters who were regarded as slaves, or free Africans who could sell their services in return for cloth and other trade goods.

Development of long distance trade that needed slaves to transport goods from the interior of East Africa.

Plantation farming increased in some areas, especially the clove plantations were slaves worked.