Thursday, 5 January 2017



The kingdom is made up of organisms mainly bacteria and blue green algae
The bacteria has the following characteristics
They are unicellular (single celled) organisms
They are very simple in size, structure and are most abundant and widely distributed organisms.
They posses no true nucleus. Their genetic material is not enclosed by the nuclear membrane.
Have varied methods of feeding i.e. photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
They reproduce asexually either by fission or spore formation or sexually by simple conjugation.
Drawing of a bacterium

Simple classification of Bacteria

Bacteria can be grouped in major groups according to their shapes. These include
Cocci are spherically shaped and include the following
Streptococci. Occur as several cells organized in a chain. E.g. Streptococci pyogenes which causes a sore throat
Staphylococci. These occur in a cluster or group
 Bacilli. These are rod- shaped bacteria.
They include the following
Bacillus. This is single rod shaped bacterium existing as a single cell, e.g. E. colli
Diplobacilli. These are two rod shaped bacterium
Streptobacilli. These are rod shaped bacterium existing in a chain
Flagellated bacilli. These have flagella around their body
Spirilla. These are spiral shaped bacteria. E.g. Treponema palladium which causes syphilis, Vibrio cholera
Economic importance of Bacteria
Bacteria that lives in soils helps in decomposing organic matter adding humus to soil
Some bacteria helps in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen into soil improving on its fertility e.g. Rhizombium bacteria living in root nodules
Bacteria living in the rumen of ruminants helps in the digestion of food containing cellulose
Some bacteria is used in the industries to make yoghurt, cheese
They are important in treatment of seawage
Many bacteria cause diseases to man and his livestock


Viruses are very small non living particles that have some characteristics of life. They do not fit in the classification of living things because they are not cells.
Why viruses are considered living
They reproduce only in a living cell
They have a genetic material composed of DNA or RNA
They cause diseases to other living organisms.
Why viruses are considered non living
Viruses cannot reproduce on their own outside a living cell
They crystallize when removed from a natural medium
They are not made up of cells


Examples of protists are: amoeba, euglena, paramecium, chlamydomonas etc.

Diagram of an amoeba

Main features of protists

They are unicellular organisms i.e. made of one cell.
 Have a true nucleus with nuclear membrane organelles.
 Have double membrane organelles.
 Some members locomote freely using a pseudopodia, cilia or flagella.
 Have varied forms of nutrition e.g. a chlamydomonas makes its own food by photosynthesis and amoeba doesnt.
 They live mostly in water or watery environment.


It has several classes but some of the most important classes include
1. Rhizopoda
2. Ciliata or ciliopora
3. Mastigopora

E.g. Amoeba
-Are free living organism

E.g  paramecium
-posses cilia all over
The body for        locomotion

E.g. Trypanosomes
-Having a slander, long
Undulating body

    move by means of a pseudopium                                                  
-Have two nuclei name
ely micro and mega

-Have a tapening end at the
Anterior part

-Have a prominent food and
Contractile vacuole
-Have branched
Contractile vacuole
-Have flagella for locomotion

-Are mainly parasitic
Posses an oral groove


Living things classified under this kingdom are called fungi (singular .fungus)
Examples of fungi
Common bread mould (Rhizopus)
Mucor grows o soil & braed
puff balls
Toadstools etc.


They are multicelluar  organisms
They have cells surrounded by rigid ,protective cell made up of chitin and not cellulose
Their cells have a true nucleus.
Their body is usually organized into thread like structure called Hyphae (singular Hyphae)
 NB: Amass of hyphae is called mycelium
They lack chlorophyll hence cant make their own food
They obtain nutrients from dead organic materials though some members are parasites i.e. they are mainly saprotrophic organisms
They produce vast quantities of tiny reproductive units called spores
Diagram of a common bread mould (Rhizopus)

Economic importance of fungi to man

A source of food to man e.g. some mushrooms
They act as decomposers of dead plants and animals therefore help in recycling
Some fungi are used in the manufacture of antibiotics such as penicillium which help in controlling bacteria
Yeast is used in the brewing industries to ferment carbohydrates to produce alcoholic drinks such as beer, and wines
In the baking industry the yeast is used to produce carbon dioxide which raises the dough hence making it appear bigger.
Some fungi cause diseases to man, his livestock and crops. E.g. fungus which cause athletes foot, ringworm in man, tomato blight in man.


Characteristics of kingdom Animalia

They locomote i.e. they have the ability to move from one place to another.
They reproduce both asexually and sexually.
They dont have chlorophyll so they dont make their own food.
They show quick response to stimuli.
They have cells without cell walls but contain a true nucleus.
They are multi-cellular.

Kingdom Animalia

Contains a large number of different phylum
These include;
Phylum Chordata (includes classes, mammalian, birds, reptilia, amphibia, fish)
Phylum Porifera (sponges)
Phylum Arthropoda (classes insecta, arachnida, crustacea, and miriapoda)
Phylum Coelentrata. Example include; Hydra.
Phylum Platyhelminthe. Examples include; Flat worms.
Phylum Nematoda. Examples include; Round worms.
Phylum Annelida .Examples include; Earth worms.
Phylum Mollusca. Examples includes; Snails, Oysters.
Phylum Echinodermata. Example include; Starfish.
Phylum Porifera.Example; Sponges
Their bodies are pierced with tiny holes called pores.
They live in marine water (water not fresh).
They have a hollow central cavity.
They either live singly or colonies.
They do not have a nervous co-ordination.

Phylum Coelentrata

Examples include; jellyfish, hydra, sea anemones, Portuguese man of war.
They are multi-cellular.
Their bodies are only two cells thick.
Coelentrata have a sac like intestine with only one opening.
The body of coelenterates contains specialized cells.
They have sense cells ,stinging cells, glandular cells, absorptive and nerve cells but are not grouped together to form tissues.
A section through hydra

Examples of specialized cells found in hydra.
Nerve cells.
Gland cells.
Absorptive cells.
Sense cells.
Stinging cells.
Interstitial cells.